Bibliography on the Events of 1965-66 in Indonesia

John Roosa | Indonesian Institute of Social History | September 2009

I. Pre-1965 Indonesian Politics

II. The September 30th Movement

III. The Mass Arrests and Killings

IV. Political Imprisonment, Stigmatization, and Exile

V. The Founding of Suharto’s Military Dictatorship

VI. Social Memory


I. Pre-1965 Indonesian Politics

1. President Sukarno and the political system

2. The military

3. The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and Left Organizations

4. Madiun affair 1948

5. PRRI/Permesta revolts 1957-58

6. Darul Islam revolt 1949-62

7. Confrontation with Malaysia 1963-65


II. The September 30th Movement

1. The announcements of the September 30th Movement

2. Anti-communist propaganda, October 1965 to December 1967

3. The Suharto regime’s narratives, 1968 to the present

4. Retrospective statements by participants

5. Retrospective statements by eyewitnesses

6. Autobiographies and biographies of military officers

7. Military court trial transcripts

8. Scholarly studies


III. The Mass Arrests and Killings

1. Indonesian government documents

2. Foreign press accounts

3. Survivors’ stories

4. Eyewitness accounts

5. Perpetrator accounts

6. Scholarly studies

7. The U.S. government and the killings

8. Documentary films


IV. Political Imprisonment, Stigmatization, and Exile

1. Indonesian government documents

2. Foreign press reports

3. Memoirs of the political prisoners

4. Fictional literature written by tapols

5. Scholarly studies

6. Works by Indonesians in exile

7. The PKI’s Attempt at Armed Struggle in 1967-68

8. Journals


V. The Founding of Suharto’s Military Dictatorship

1. Building a military dictatorship

2. The army’s civilian collaborators

3. Involvement of foreign governments

4. Anti-communist culture of the Suharto years


VI. Social Memory

1. Fictional works

2. Films

3. Scholarly studies

I. Pre-1965 Indonesian Politics

1. President Sukarno and the political system

Anwar, Rosihan. Sebelum Prahara: Pergolakan Politik Indonesia 1961-1965. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1981. Republished as: Sukarno, Tentara, PKI: Segitiga Kekuasaan sebelum Prahara Politik, 1961-1965. Jakarta: Obor, 2006.

Asnan, Gusti, et al. “Nation, Region and the Ambiguities of Modernity in Indonesia in the 1950s.” In Henk Schulte Nordholt, ed., Indonesian Transitions. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2006.

Boland, B.J. The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1982.

Bunnell, Frederick P. “Guided Democracy Foreign Policy: 1960-1965 President Sukarno Moves from Non-Alignment to Confrontation.” Indonesia no. 2 (October 1966): 37-76.

Feith, Herbert. The Indonesian Elections of 1955. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1957.

Feith, Herbert. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1962. Republished: Jakarta: Equinox, 2006.

Feith, Herbert. “The Dynamics of Guided Democracy.” In Ruth T. McVey, ed. Indonesia. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, by arrangement with HRAF Press, 1963: 309-409. Translated into Indonesian and published as a book: Soekarno dan Militer dalam Demokrasi Terpimpin. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 2001.

Feith, Herbert. “President Soekarno, the Army, and the Communists: The Triangle Changes Shape.” Asian Survey 4, no. 8 (August 1964): 969-980.

Feith, Herbert and Lance Castles. eds. Indonesian Political Thinking, 1945-1965. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970. Republished: Jakarta: Equinox, 2007.

Finch, Susan and Daniel Lev. Republic of Indonesia Cabinets, 1945-1965. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1965.

Hauswedell, Peter Christian. “Sukarno: Radical or Conservative? Indonesian Politics 1964-65.” Indonesia no. 15 (April 1973): 109-143.

Kahin, George, Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca. Cornell University Press, 1952.

Legge, J.D. Sukarno: A Political Biography. Singapore: Archipelago Press, 2003. First published in 1972 by Praeger and Allen Lane.

Lev, Dan. The Transition to Guided Democracy: Indonesian Politics, 1957-1959. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1966.

Lyon, Margo. Bases of Conflict in Rural Java. Berkeley: University of California Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1970.

McMahon, Robert J. Colonialism and Cold War: The United States and the Struggle for Indonesian Independence, 1945-49. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Mackie, J.A.C. “Indonesia’s Government Estates and Their Masters.” Pacific Affairs 34, no. 4 (Winter 1961-1962): 337-360.

Moehamad, Djoeir. Memoar Seorang Sosialis. Jakarta: Obor, 1997.

Mrázek, Rudolf. Sjahrir: Politics and Exile in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1994.

Nasution, Adnan Buyung. The Aspiration for Constitutional Government in Indonesia: A Socio-legal Study of the Indonesian Konstituante 1956-1959. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1992. Translated into Indonesian as: Aspirasi Pemerintahan Konstitusional di Indonesia: Studi Sosio-Legal atas Konstituante, 1956-1959. trans. Sylvia Tiwon. Jakarta: Grafiti, 1995.

Pauker, Guy. “Indonesia in 1963: The Year of Wasted Opportunities.” Asian Survey 4, no. 2 (February 1964): 687-694.

Pauker, Guy. “Indonesia in 1964: Toward a ‘People’s Democracy’?” Asian Survey 5, no. 2 (February 1965): 88-97.

Pelzer, Karl. “The Agrarian Conflict in East Sumatra.” Pacific Affairs 30, no. 2 (June 1957): 151-214.

Pelzer, Karl. Planters Against Peasants: The Agrarian Struggle of East Sumatra, 1947-1958. ‘s-Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff, 1982. Indonesian translation: Sengketa Agraria: Pengusaha Perkebunan Melawan Petani. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1991.

Pluvier, Jan. “Indonesia before the Holocaust.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 1, no. 2 (Winter 1970): 5-21.

Rocamora, J . Eliseo. “The Partai Nasional Indonesia 1963-1965.” Indonesia no. 10 (October 1970): 143-181.

Rocamora, J . Eliseo. Nationalism in Search of Ideology: The Indonesian Nationalist Party, 1946-1965. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, Philippine Center for Advanced Studies, 1975. Based on the author’s Ph.D. thesis at Cornell University, 1974.

Samsuri. Politik Islam Anti Komunis: Pergumulan Masyumi dan PKI di Arena Demokrasi Liberal. 2004.

Soewito, Irna. Chairul Saleh: Tokoh Kontroversial. Jakarta: Mutiara Rachmat, 1993.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Sukarno’s Indonesia.” Pacific Affairs 46, no. 2 (Summer 1973): 269-288.

2. The military

Crouch, Harold. The Army and Politics in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978. Republished with new preface and epilogue: Jakarta: Equinox, 2007. Indonesian translation: Militer dan Politik Indonesia. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1999.

Lebra, Joyce. “The Significance of the Japanese Military Model for Southeast Asia.” Pacific Affairs 48, no. 2 (Summer 1975): 215-229.

Lev, Daniel. “The Political Role of the Army in Indonesia,” Pacific Affairs 36, no. 4 (Winter 1963-64): 349-364.

McVey, Ruth. T. “The Post-Revolutionary Transformation of the Army, part 1.” Indonesia no. 11 (April 1971): 131-176; part 2, Indonesia no. 13 (April 1972): 147-181.

Mrázek, Rudolf, The United States and the Indonesian Military 1945-1965: A Study of an Intervention, 2 vols. Prague: Oriental Institute, 1978.

Mokoginta, Major General A.J. Sedjarah Singkat Perdjuangan Bersensendjata Bangsa Indonesia. Jakarta: SAB, 1964.

Nasution, A.H. Sedjarah Perdjuangan Nasional dibidang Bersendgata. Jakarta: Mega Bookstore, 1966.

Nasution, A.H. Memenuhi Panggilan Tugas.

Paget, R.K. “The Military in Indonesian Politics: The Burden of Power.” Pacific Affairs 40, nos. 3-4 (Autumn 1967-Winter 1967-68): 294-314.

Pauker, Guy. “The Role of the Military in Indonesia.” In The Role of the Military in Underdeveloped Countries, edited by John H. Johnson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962. Reprinted as a pamphlet: Institute for International Studies, University of California-Berkeley, not dated.

Sundhaussen, Ulf. The Road to Power: Indonesian Military Politics 1945-1967. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

3. The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and Left Organizations

Aidit, Murad. Aidit Sang Legenda. Jakarta: Panta Rei, 2005.

Aidit, Sobron. Aidit: Abang, Sahabat dan Guru di Masa Pergolakan. Bandung: Yayasan Nuansa Cendekia, 2003.

Antariksa. Tuan Tanah Kawin Muda: Hubungan Seni Rupa-LEKRA 1950-1965. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Seni Cemeti, 2005.

Bowen, Craig. From the Ashes: The Rise and Fall of the PKI. Paramatta, NSW, Australia: Militant International Publications, 1990. 42 p.

Brackman, Arnold. Indonesian Communism: A History. New York: Praeger, 1963.

Budiawan. “Seeing the Communist Past through the Lens of a CIA Consultant: Guy J. Pauker on the Indonesian Communist Party Before and After the ‘1965 Affair,” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 7, no. 4 (2006): 650-662.

Cayrac-Blanchard, Francoise. Le Parti Communiste Indonesien. Paris: Armand Colin, 1973.

Dake, Antonie C.A. In the Spirit of the Red Banteng: Indonesian Communism between Moscow and Peking 1959-1965. The Hague: Mouton, 1973.

Diniah, Hikmah. Gerwani Bukan PKI: Sebuah Gerakan Feminisme Terbesar di Indoensia. Yogyakarta: Carasvati Books, 2007.

Efimova, Larisa M. Stalin i Indonyeziya: Politika SSSR v otnoshenii Indonyezii v 1945–1953 godakh: Nyeizvyestniye Stranitsiy [Stalin and Indonesia: Soviet Policy towards Indonesia, 1945–1953]. Moscow: Moscow State Institute of International Relations, 2004. Review by John Sidel, “From Russia with Love?” Indonesia no. 84 (October 2007): 161-172.

Efimova, Larisa M. “Who Gave Instructions to the Indonesian Communist Leader Musso in 1948?” Indonesia and the Malay World 31, no. 90 (July 2003): 171–189.

Efimova, Larisa M. “Stalin and the Revival of the Communist Party of Indonesia,” Cold War History 5, no. 1 (February 2005): 107–120.

Edman, Peter. “Communism a la Aidit”: The Indonesian Communist Party under D.N. Aidit, 1950-1965. Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland, 1987.

Foulcher, Keith. Social Commitment in Literature and the Arts: The Indonesian ‘Institute of People’s Culture,’ 1950-1965. Clayton: Monash University Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, 1986.

Gunawan, Basuki. “Political Mobilization in Indonesia: Nationalists against Communists.” Modern Asian Studies 7, no. 4 (1973): 707-715.

Hindley, Donald. “The Indonesian Communist Party and the Conflict in the International Communist Movement.” The China Quarterly 19 (July-September 1964): 99-119.

Hindley, Donald. The Communist Party of Indonesia 1951-1963. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

Institut Studi Arus Informasi. Bayang Bayang PKI. Jakarta: ISAI, 1995.

Kasdi, Aminuddin. Kaum Merah Menjarah: Aksi Sepihak PKI/BTI di Jawa Timur 1960-1965. Yogyakarta: Jendela, 2001.

Leclerc, Jacques. “Aidit dan Partai Pada Tahun 1950.” Prisma 11, no. 7 (July 1982): 61-79.

Lembaga Studi Ilmu-Ilmu Kemasyarakatan (LSIK), Rangkaian Peristiwa Pemberontakan Kommunis di Indonesia 1926-1948-1965. Jakarta: LKIS, 1983.

McVey, Ruth T. The Soviet View of the Indonesian Revolution: A Study in the Russian Attitude towards Asian Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1957.

McVey, Ruth T. The Calcutta Conference and the Southeast Asian Uprisings. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1958.

McVey, Ruth T. The Rise of Indonesian Communism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1965. Republished: Jakarta: Equinox, 2006.

McVey, Ruth T. “Indonesian Communism and China,” in Ping-ti Ho and Tang Tsou, eds., China in Crisis, 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

McVey, Ruth T. “The Wayang Controversy in Indonesian Communism,” in Mark Hobart and Robert Taylor, eds. Context, Meaning and Power in Southeast Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1986.

McVey, Ruth. “Teaching Modernity: The PKI as an Educational Institution,” Indonesia no. 50 (October 1990): 5-27.

Mortimer, Rex. “Indonesia: Émigré Post-Mortems on the PKI.” Australian Outlook 22, no. 3 (1968).

Mortimer, Rex. “The Downfall of Indonesian Communism.” In Ralph Miliband and John Saville, eds. The Socialist Register 1969. London: The Merlin Press, 1969: 189-218.

Mortimer, Rex. “Class, Social Cleavage, and Indonesian Communism.” Indonesia no. 8 (April 1969): 1-20.

Mortimer, Rex. Indonesian Communism under Sukarno: Ideology and Politics, 1959-1965. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974. Republished: Jakarta: Equinox, 2006.

Pauker, Ewa. “Has the Sukarno Regime Weakened the PKI?” Asian Survey 4, no. 9 (September 1964): 1058-1070.

Pauker, Guy. “Current Communist Tactics in Indonesia.” Asian Survey 1, no. 3 (May 1961): 26-35.

Pauker, Guy. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Indonesia. Santa Monica: The Rand Corporation, United States Air Force Project, 1969. 63 p.

Sanit, Arbi. Badai Revolusi: Sketsa Kekuatan PKI di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2000.

Soedjono, Imam. Yang Berlawan: Membongkar Tabir Pemalsuan Sejarah PKI. Yogyakarta: Resist Book, 2006.

Soerjono. “On Musso’s Return.” trans. Benedict Anderson. Indonesia no. 29 (April 1980): 59-90.

Subhan, Sd. Langkah Merah: Gerakan PKI 1950-1955. Yogyakarta: Bentang Budaya, 1996.

Törnquist, Olle. The Dilemmas of Third World Communism: The Destruction of the PKI in Indonesia. London: Zed Press, 1984.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Dilemmas of Indonesian Communism.” Pacific Affairs 35, no. 2 (Summer 1962): 141-159.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Indonesian Communist Policy and the Sixth Party Congress.” Pacific Affairs 33, no. 3 (September 1960): 227-249.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Indonesian Communism and the Changing Balance of Power.” Pacific Affairs 37, no. 4 (Winter 1964-1965): 357-383.

Van der Kroef, Justus. The Communist Party of Indonesia: Its History, Program and Tactics. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1965.

Wieringa, Saskia. Sexual Politics in Indonesia. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. This book is a revised version of the author’s dissertation: “The Politicization of Gender Relations in Indonesia: The Indonesian Women’s Movement and Gerwani until the New Order State” (University of Amsterdam, 1995). This dissertation was translated into Indonesian: Penghancuran Gerakan Perempuan di Indonesia (Jakarta: Kalyanamitra and Garba Budaya, 1999).

Williams, Michael. Sickle and Crescent: The Communist Revolt of 1926 in Banten. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1982.

Williams, Michael. Communism, Religion, and Revolt in Banten. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asian Series, no. 86, 1990).

4. Madiun affair 1948

Aidit, D.N. Aidit Menggugat Peristiwa Madiun: Pembelaan D.N. Aidit dimuka Pengadilan Negeri Djakarta, 24 Februari 1955. Jakarta: Jajasan Pembaruan, 1955. 64 p. The PKI reprinted this book in 1964 and published an English-language translation in 1955.

Aidit, D.N. Konfrontasi Peristiwa Madiun 1948: Peristiwa Sumatra 1956. Jakarta : Jajasan Pembaruan, 1957. 43 p. The PKI reprinted this text in 1964.

Anderson, David Charles. “The Military Aspects of the Madiun Affair.” Indonesia no. 21 (April 1976): 1-63.

Anonymous. Berbagai Fakta dan Kesaksian Sekitar “Peristiwa Madiun.” N.p.: Pustaka Pena, c. 2001. This is a collection of essays and documents defending the PKI: S. Suroso, “‘Peristiwa Madiun’ PKI Korban Perdana Perang Dingin”; Sutopo, “Provokasi Madiun”; “Wawancara dengan Sumarsono”; PKI, “Buku Putih tentang Peristiwa Madiun”; and “Aidit Menggugat Peristiwa Madiun.”

Anonymous. PKI, Korban Perang Dingin: Sejarah Peristiwa Madiun, 1948. N.p.: Era Publisher, 2001.

Derita, S.P. Lima Minggu Sebelum Madiun Affair. Medan: Toko Buku Sarkawi, c. 1949. 48 p.

Kreutzer, R. The Madiun Affair: Hatta’s Betrayal of Indonesia’s First Social Revolution. Occasional paper South East Asian Studies Committee, James Cook University of North Queensland, 1981. 44 p.

Liga Pembela Demokrasi. Rakjat Menggugat: Pemberontakan Partai Komunis Indonesia c.s. di Madiun, tanggal 18 September 1948. Surabaya, 1953. 10 p.

Maksum, Agus Sunyoto, and A. Zainuddin. Lubang-Lubang Pembantaian: Petualangan PKI di Madiun. Jakarta: Grafiti, 1990. 190 p. A collection of articles that had been serialized in the Jawa Pos newspaper.

Marboen, Moela. Gerakan Operasi Militer untuk Menumpas Pemberontakan Madiun. Jakarta: Mega Bookstore, c. 1965. 16 p.

Marsudi, Djamal. Menjingkap Tabir Fakta-Fakta Pemberontakan P.K.I. dalam Peristiwa Madiun. Djakarta: Merdeka Press, 1966.

Onghokham. “Pemberontakan Madiun.” Prisma (1978).

Partai Komunis Indonesia. Buku Putih tentang Peristiwa Madiun. Jakarta: Departemen Agitprop-PKI, 1954. 32 p.

Pinardi. Peristiwa Coup Berdarah P.K.I., September 1948 di Madiun; Sebuah Case-study tentang Proloog-Peristiwa-Epiloog dan Beberapa Analisa tentang Sebab dan Akibat Pemberontakan P.K.I.-Musso jang Dilakukan terhadap Pemerintah Republik Indonesia jang Sah pada Bulan September 1948. Djakarta, Inkopak-Hazera, c. 1967. 176 p.

Setiawan, Hersri. Negara Madiun? Kesaksian Soemarsono, Pelaku Perjuangan. N.p.: Forum Studi Perubahan dan Peradaban, 2002.

Soe Hok Gie. Orang-Orang di Persimpangan Kiri Jalan. Yogyakarta: Bentang Budaya, 1997; reprint 2005. This book is the author’s thesis written at University of Indonesia in 1969 with the title, “Simpang Kiri dari Sebuah Jalan: Kisah Pemberontakan Madiun September 1948.” The precocious 21-year old author passed away in December 1969, only months after submitting the thesis.

Soemarsono. Revolusi Agustus: Kesaksian Seorang Pelaku Sejarah. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 2008. This book is based on Soemarsono’s public lectures and interviews in Europe and Indonesia in 2002. A team of writers of the Indonesian exile community in Europe wrote and edited the text.

Soetanto, Himawan. Perintah Presiden Soekarno: ‘Rebut Kembali Madiun’: Siliwangi Menumpas Pemberontakan PKI/Moeso 1948. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1994.

Soetanto, Himawan. Madiun dari Republik ke Republik: Aspek Militer Pembrontakan PKI di Madiun, 1948. Jakarta: Kata, 2006.

Swift, Ann. The Road to Madiun: The Indonesian Communist Uprising of 1948. Ithaca: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1989.

Wahyudi, Sarjana Sigit. Ketika Sarbupri Mengguncang Pabrik Karung Delanggu 1948: Sebuah Studi Awal dari Pemberontakan PKI Madiun. 2001.

5. PRRI/Permesta revolts 1957-58

Conboy, Kenneth. Feet to the Fire: CIA Covert Operations in Indonesia, 1957-58. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1999.

Doeppers, Daniel. “An Incident in the PRRI/Permesta Rebellion of 1958.” Indonesia no. 14 (October 1972): 183-195.

Feith, Herbert and Daniel S. Lev. “The End of the Indonesian Rebellion.” Pacific Affairs 36, no. 1 (Spring 1963): 32-46.

Harvey, Barbara. Permesta: Half a Rebellion. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1977.

Kahin, George, and Audrey Kahin. Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. New York: New Press, 1995.

Leirissa, R.Z. Bukan Disiplin Kadaver Melainkan Disiplin Berdjiwa: Opersai2 Militer Terhadap ‘Permesta’ 1958. Jakarta: SAB, 1965.

Leirissa, R.Z. PRRI Permesta: Strategi Membangun Indonesia tanpa Komunis. Jakarta: Grafiti, 1991. Reprinted 1997.

Mossman, James. Rebels in Paradise: Indonesia’s Civil War. London: Cape, 1961.

Onghokham. Sapta Marga Berkumandang di Sumatra: Operasi2 Menumpas Pemberontakan PRRI. Jakarta: SAB, 1965.

Smail, John. “The Military Politics of North Sumatra December 1956 to October 1957.” Indonesia no. 6 (October 1968): 128-187.

Soebadio, Hadi. Keterlibatan Australia dalam Pemberontakan PRRI/Permesta. Jakarta: Gramedia, 2002. English version: Australia’s Involvement in the PRRI/Permesta Rebellion. Jakarta: Pramita, 2005.

6. Darul Islam revolt 1949-62

Bardosono, Major. Peristiwa Sulawesi Selatan. Jakarta: Jajasan Pustaka Militer, 1955.

Basri, Jusmar. GOM VI untuk Menumpas DI/TII di Djawa Tengah. Jakarta: SAB, 1965.

Gonggong, Anhar. Abdul Qahar Mudzakkar: Dari Patriot Hingga Pemberontak. Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2004.

Harahap, Zanaibun. Operasi2 Militer Menumpas Kahar Muzakar. Jakarta: SAB, 1965.

Horikoshi, Hiroko. “The Dar ul-Islam Movement in West Java (1948-62): An Experience in the Historical Process.” Indonesia no. 20 (October 1975): 59-86.

Jackson, Karl. Traditional Authority, Islam, and Rebellion: A Study of Indonesian Political Behavior. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Mattalioe, Bahar. Kahar Muzakar dengan Petualangannja. Jakarta: Penerbit Delegasi, 1955.

van Dijk, Cornelis. Rebellion under the Banner of Islam: The Darul Islam Movement in Indonesia. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1981.

7. Confrontation with Malaysia 1963-65

Citrawijaya, Supoduto. Kompi X di Rimba Siglayan: Konfrontasi dengan Malaysia. Jakarta: Kompas, 2005.

Corfield, Justin. A Bibliography of Military and Political Aspects of the Malayan Emergency, the Confrontation with Indonesia, and the Brunei Revolt. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.

Easter, David. Britain and the Confrontation with Indonesia, 1960-1966. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004.

James, Harold. The Undeclared War: The Story of the Indonesian Confrontation, 1962-1966. London: Leo Cooper, 1971.

Jones, Mathew. Conflict and Confrontation in South East Asia 1961-1965: Britain, the United States, and the Creation of Malaysia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Mackie, J.A.C. Konfrontasi: The Indonesia-Malaysia Dispute 1963-1966. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Mukmin, Hidayat. TNI dalam Politik Luar Negeri: Studi Kasus Penyelesaian Konfrontasi Indonesia-Malaysia. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1991.

Pinardi. Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo. Jakarta: Penerbit BP Aryguna, 1964.

Pluvier, Jan. Confrontations: A Study in Indonesian Politics. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1965. 85 p.

Polomka, Peter. “Indonesian Army and Confrontation: An Inquiry into the Functions of Foreign Policy under Guided Democracy.” University of Melbourne thesis, 1969.

Poulgrain, Greg, The Genesis of Konfrontasi: Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia 1945-1965. London: C. Hurst and Co., 1998.

Subritzky, John. Confronting Sukarno: British, American, Australian and New Zealand Diplomacy in the Malaysian-Indonesian Confrontation, 1961-1965. New York: St. Martins Press, 2000.

Sulistiyo, Basuki. Membakar Matahari: Kisah Perdjoangan Dibawah Tanah di Daerah Malaysia Semasa Konfrontasi. Jakarta: Lami-Lami, 1966.

Sutter, John O., “Two Faces of Konfrontasi: “Crush Malaysia’ and the Gestapu.” Asian Survey 6, no. 10 (October 1966): 523-546.

Weinstein, Franklin. Indonesia Abandons Confrontation: An Inquiry into the Functions of Indonesian Foreign Policy. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1969.

II. The September 30th Movement

1. The Announcements of the September 30th Movement

“Selected Documents Relating to the ‘September 30th Movement’ and Its Epilogue,” Indonesia no. 1 (April 1966): 131-204.

2. Anticommunist propaganda: October 1965 to December 1967

Agustawan, Harry. 5 Tahun Melawan SAC (Subandrio, Aidit, Chaerul). Bandung: Badar, 1966.

Agustaman, H. Gestapu Red Terror in Djakarta: A Picture Story of the Killing of Six Indonesian Generals on the 30th September Coup. Singapore, 1966. 54 p.

Akasah, Badaruttaman. Subandrio Mati. Bandung: Badar, 1966.

Ali, Zainar. Rusia jang Saja Lihat dan Gestapu. Jakarta: Jajasan Lembaga Penjelidikan Islam, 1967. 63 p.

Angkatan Bersendjata. 40 Hari Kegagalan ‘G-30-S’: 1 Oktober – 10 November 1965. Jakarta: Staf Angkatan Bersendjata, 1965.

Boerhan and Soebekti. Fakta dan Latarbelakang G30S. Jakarta: Lembaga Pendidikan Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Kebudajaan Kosgoro Djakarta, 1965.

Bung Tomo. Sesudah Madiun dan Gestapu, Lantas Apa? Jakarta: Penerbit Balapan, 1966.

Dewan Redaksi API. Harian API Mengganjang Nekolim-PKI-Gestapu. Jakarta: Merdeka Press, 1965.

Dewan Redaksi Merdeka. Masalah Pembubaran PKI. Jakarta: Merdeka Press, 1966.

Detik jang Menentukan tentang Pengchianatan Subversi dari Gerakan 30 September. Jakarta: Matoa, 1965.

Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Office of the Military Attache. Perkembangan Situasi Politik di Indonesia: Proloog dan Epiloog Gestapu/PKI. 1966. 16 p.

Fakta2 Sekitar Kup Berdarah Gestapu/PKI dari Diskusi2 Politbiro Hingga ‘Gerakan’ di Djakarta Tumpas. Jakarta, 1966. 89 p.

Hamba. Pedoman Operasi Mental untuk Mengikis Habis Mental Gestapu-P.K.I. Jakarta: Jajasan Perdjalanan Hadji Indonesia, 1966. 90 p.

Imawan, S.J. Dokumen2 Gestapu. Padang: Srana Dwipa, 1966. 74 p.

Imawan, S.J. Ia Pergi Sebagai Pahlawan Revolusi: Kisah Terror Gestapu “G.30.S” Padang: Puskopad Dam III/Sumteng, 1965. 64 p.

Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban (Kopkamtib). Himpunan Surat-Surat Keputusan/Perintah jang Berhubungan dengan Kopkamtib, 1965-1969. Jakarta: Sekretariat Kopkamtib, 1969.

Komando Operasi Tertinggi (KOTI), Rangkaian Pidato dan Pernjataan-Pernjataan Resmi Disekitar ‘Gerakan 30 September.’ Jakarta, 1965.

Notosoetardjo, H.A. Mendongkel ‘ABC Politik’ PKI. Jakarta: Api Islam, 1965.

Notosusanto, Nugroho. 40 Hari Kegagalan G-30-S. Jakarta: Staf Pertahanan Keamanan, 1966.

Nurdin A.S., M. Supardjo Direnggut Kalong. Jakarta: Varia, 1967.

Paget, Roger. “Djakarta Newspapers: Preliminary Comments,” Indonesia no. 4 (October 1967): 211-226.

Pusat Penerangan Angkatan Darat. Fakta-fakta Persoalan Sekitar ‘Gerakan 30 September,’ Penerbitan Chusus. Nos. 1-3. Jakarta, October to December, 1965.

Sidin, A.D. Fitnah, Infiltrasi, Kudeta, Teror Gestapu PKI dari Masa ke Masa. Jakarta: Harris, 1966.

Soebekti. Hari-Hari Terakhir Aidit. Yogyakarta: Kedaulatan Rakjat, 1966. 98 p.

Soeharto. Setahun Penghianatan GESTAPU/PKI, Setahun Lobang Buaya. Jakarta: Jajasan Lembaga Penjelidikan Islam, 1966.

Sumantri, Iwa Kusuma. Pokok2 Ilmu Politik dan Ringkasan Pemberontakan Gestapu/P.K.I. Jakarta, 1966.

Susilomurti and S. Etjip, Teror Subuh: Fakta-Fakta Penghianatan G30S/PKI. Jakarta: Jajasan Dharma Sedjahtera, 1966.

Sutjipto, Brigadier Djenderal. Gerakan 30 September. Jakarta: Matoa, c. 1966.

Tjondronegoro, Dharmawan. Ledakan Fitnah Subversi G-30-S. Jakarta: Matoa, 1966.

3. The Suharto regime’s narratives, 1968 to the present

Atmowiloto, Arswendo. Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1986. This book describes itself as a “novelization” of the film of the same name. The film, directed by Arifin C. Noer, was released in 1984.

Brackman, Arnold. The Communist Collapse in Indonesia. New York: Norton, 1969.

Brackman, Arnold. Indonesia: The Gestapu Affair. New York: American-Asian Educational Exchange, 1969. 46 p.

Central Intelligence Agency, Indonesia – 1965: The Coup that Backfired (Washington: CIA, 1968). This report can be downloaded for free: The author of this study later identified herself and published the work under her own name, despite the fact that her report was already publicly available online: Helen Louise Hunter, Sukarno and the Indonesian Coup: The Untold Story. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007.

Dake, Antonie C.A. In the Spirit of the Red Banteng: Indonesian Communism between Moscow and Peking 1959-1965. The Hague: Mouton, 1973.

Dake, Antonie C.A. The Sukarno File, 1965-67: Chronology of a Defeat. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Dinas Sejarah Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat. Cuplikan Sejarah Perjuangan TNI-Angkatan Darat. Bandung: Mahjuma, 1972.

Dinas Sejarah Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, Lukisan Pemberontakan G30S/PKI dan Penumpasannya. Bandung, 1980.

Dinas Sejarah Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, Pemberontakan G30S/PKI dan Penumpasannya. Bandung, 1982.

Dinas Sejarah Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat. Komunisme dan Kegiatannya di Indonesia. Jakarta, 1982.

Dinuth, Alex. Dokumen Terpilih Sekitar G.30.S/PKI. Jakarta: Intermasa, 1997.

Dinuth, Alex. Kewaspadaan Nasional dan Bahaya Laten Komunis. Jakarta: Intermasa, 1997.

Dipodisastro, Soemarno, ed. Kesaksian Sukitman: Penemu Sumur Lubang Buaya. Jakarta: Yayasan Sukitman, 2006.

Djanwar. Mengungkap Pengkhianatan/Pemberontakan G30S/PKI dalam Rangka Mengamankan Pancasila dan UUD 1945. Bandung: Yrama, 1986.

Fic, Victor M. Anatomy of the Jakarta Coup: October 1, 1965: The Collusion with China which Destroyed the Army Command, President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 2004.

Giebels, Lambert J. De Stille Genocide: De Fatale Gebeurtenissen Rond de Val de Indonesische President Soekarno. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2005. Translated into Indonesian as: Pembantaian yang Ditutup-tutupi: Peristiwa Fatal di Sekitar Kejatuhan Bung Karno. Jakarta: Grasindo, 2005. Despite the title, this book contains little information about the mass killings, even less that is correct, and none that is new. The book is the final volume of the author’s three-volume biography of President Sukarno. All the claims in this book are unreferenced.

Hakekat Pembangunan Monumen Pancasila Sakti. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1982.

Islamic Research Institute. Sepuluh tahun Lubang Buaya: Pemberontakan P.K.I. N.p.: Islamic Research Institute, 1976.

Karni, Rahadi S., ed. and trans. The Devious Dalang: Sukarno and the so-called Untung Putsch; Eye-witness Report by Bambang S. Widjanarko. The Hague: Interdoc, 1974. Kardi, a librarian in the Netherlands, seems to have done the translation of this document at the request of A.C.A. Dake, who wrote the introduction to the book. Dake has made extensive use of this document in his own writings. The document is fraudulent. It is a transcript of an interrogation written by the Indonesian military. Bambang S. Widjanarko, succumbed to military pressure to sign it but later published his own book which presented a completely different story: Sewindu Dekat Bung Karno (Jakarta: Gramedia, 1988).

Kasdi, Aminuddin, and G. Ambar Wulan. G.30.S PKI/1965: Bedah Ceasar Dewan Revolusi Indonesia. Surabaya: Java Pustaka Media Utama, 2005.

Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban (Kopkamtib). Gerakan 30 September Partai Komunis Indonesia: G.30.S/PKI. Jakarta, 1978.

Lembaga Studi Ilmu-Ilmu Kemasyarakatan (LSIK). Rangkaian Peristiwa Pemberontakan Kommunis di Indonesia 1926-1948-1965. Jakarta: LSIK, 1983.

Manafe, Aco. Teperpu Mengungkap Pengkhianatan PKI Pada Tahun 1965 dan Proses Hukum Bagi Para Pelakunya. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 2007.

Markas Besar ABRI, Pusat Sejarah dan Tradisi ABRI, Bahaya Laten Komunisme di Indonesia. 4 vols. Jakarta, 1994. Vol. 1: Perkembangan Gerakan dan Pengkhianatan Komunisme di Indonesia (1913-1948); vol. 2: Penumpasan Pemberontakan PKI (1948); vol. 3: Konsolidasi dan Infiltrasi PKI (1950-59); vol. 4, part A: Ofensif-ofensif Manipolis dan Revolusioner PKI sampai Pecahnya Pemberontakan G-30-S/PKI dan Penumpasannya (1959-65), part B: Penumpasan Sisa-Sisa Komunisme dalam Segala Bentuk dan Manifestasinya (1966-90).

Nasution, A.H. Pengalaman Sekitar Peristiwa 30 September 1965. Yogyakarta: Gema, c. 1980. 20 p.

Notosusanto, Nugroho and Ismail Saleh. The Coup Attempt of the ‘September 30 Movement’ in Indonesia. Jakarta: Pemimbing, 1968. Indonesian translation: Tragedi Nasional: Percobaan Kup G 30 S/PKI di Indonesia. Jakarta: Intermasa, 1989.

Pizzicaro, John T. “The 30 September Movement in Indonesia.” Studies in Intelligence 13, no. 4 (Fall 1969). This article was declassified by the CIA in 2005.

Poesponegoro, Marwati Djoened and Nugroho Notosusanto. Sejarah Nasional Indonesia, vol. VI. Jakarta: Department Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, PN Balai Pustaka, 1974; fifth reprint 1986: pp. 387-415.

Samsudin. Mengapa G30S/PKI Gagal? Suatu Analisis. Jakarta: Obor, 2004. The author is a retired Major General of the Indonesian army.

Siswoyo, P. Bambang. Bung Karno Dalang G.30.S/PKI? Solo: Mayasari, 1988. 80 p.

Siswoyo, P. Bambang. Menelusuri Peran Bung Karno dalam G30S-PKI. Jakarta: Mayasari, 1989. 192 p.

Soerojo, Soegiarso. Siapa Menabur Angin Akan Menuai Badai. Jakarta: Antar Kota, 1989.

Soewargana, Oejeng. Kegagalan Coup “G-30-S.” Bandung: n.p. 1969.

State Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia. The September 30th Movement: The Attempted Coup by the Indonesian Communist Party: Its Background, Actions, and Eradication. Jakarta, 1994. Indonesian version published as: Gerakan 30 September: Pemberontakan Partai Komunis Indonesia: Latar Belakang, Aksi, dan Penumpasannya. Jakarta, 1994.

Subroto, Hendro. Dewan Revolusi PKI: Menguak Kegagalannya Mengkomuniskan Indonesia. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 2007.

Sumarkidjo, Atmadji. Mendung di Atas Istana Merdeka. Jakarta: Times Communications and Sinar Harapan, 2000.

Tabah, Anton. ed. Dua Jenderal Besar Bicara tentang Gestapu/PKI. Klaten: Sahabat, 1999.

Tim Cidesindo. Membuka Lipatan Sejarah: Menguak Fakta Gerakan PKI. Jakarta: Pustaka Cidesindo, 1999.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Gestapu in Indonesia.” Orbis 10 (Summer 1966): 458-487.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Interpretations of the 1965 Indonesian Coup: A Review of the Literature.” Pacific Affairs 43, no. 4 (Winter 1970-1971): 557-577.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Origin of the 1965 Coup in Indonesia: Probabilities and Alternatives.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 3, no. 2 (1972).

4. Restrospective statements by participants

There were five men at the core of the September 30th Movement: Sjam, Pono, Lt. Col. Untung, Col. Latief, and Maj. Suyono. All were captured alive, at different times, and put on trial. None issued any statements other than those they provided in court either as defendents in their own trials or as witnesses at the trials of others. All except Latief were later executed.

Excerpts of Sjam’s testimony during his first appearance in court, as a witness in a 1967 trial, have been published in: John Roosa, Pretext for Mass Murder: The September 30th Movement and Suharto’s Coup d’Etat in Indonesia (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006). Sjam’s original Indonesian-language statements appear in the Indonesian translation of the book: Dalih Pembunuhan Massal: Gerakan 30 September dan Kudeta Suharto (Jakarta: ISSI and Hasta Mistra, 2008).

Latief was put on trial in 1978. His defense statement (pledoi or eksepsi) was first published in Amsterdam by Komitee Indonesië in 1978. Tapol Bulletin provided an early English-language description of its contents: “Colonel Latief ‘s Defense,” Tapol Bulletin no. 35 (August 1979). The text was published in Indonesia after Suharto’s fall: Kolonel Abdul Latief. Pledoi Kol. A. Latief, Soeharto Terlibat G30S (Jakarta. Insitut Studi Arus Informasi, 2000). An English language excerpt is: “I, the Accused.” Translated by Tim Behrend. Manoa 12, no. 1 (2000): 193-198. Latief was interviewed after his release from prison: “Kol. A. Latief: Kami Harus Bertanggung Jawab,” Tempo (12 Oktober 1998).

The person closest to the core group on the day of the action (October 1) was Brig. Gen. M.S. Supardjo. He was the core group’s emissary to Presiden Sukarno. He wrote a criticism of the movement before he was captured in January 1967. The original Indonesian-language version of that document appears in John Roosa, Dalih Pembunuhan Massal. The English translation appears in John Roosa, Pretext for Mass Murder.

An Air Force officer who accompanied Supardjo on the day of the action was Lt. Col. Heru Atmodjo. The core group named him in its radio broadcasts as Vice Commander of the September 30th Movement although his actual involvement in the movement appears to have been tangential. He survived imprisonment and was released in 1980. He has provided his version of events in: Garda Sembiring and Harsono Sutedjo, eds. Gerakan 30 September: Kesaksian Letkol (Pnb) Heru Atmodjo (Jakarta: PEC, 2004). An Indonesian writer living in Singapore has written an English-language account of Atmodjo’s story: May Swan, Fragranced Deception (Bandung: Ultimus, 2007).

One of the low-level participants in the September 30th Movement was Sergeant-Major Bungkus of the palace guard. He was involved in the abduction of Maj. Gen. M.T. Haryono. He was released from prison with Latief in 1998. He has given interviews to journalists and scholars: Benedict Anderson. “The World of Sergeant-Major Bungkus: Two Interviews with Benedict Anderson and Arief Djati.” Indonesia no. 78 (October 2004): 1-60. Bungkus was also interviewed after his release from prison by the now-defunct magazine D&R, “Wawancara Serma Boengkoes: Tahu-Tahu Jenderal yang Masih Hidup Digandeng,” (12-17 April 1999), and by the newspaper Kompas: “Saya Menyesal Mayjen M.T. Haryono Tertembak,” (30 Maret 1999).

One PKI leader who accompanied D.N. Aidit at Halim airbase, and was thus in touch with the core group on the day of the action, was Iskander Subekti. He was the secretary of the Politburo. His defense plea at his trial in December 1972 has not been published but it was privately circulated at the time. It has entered the collections of some libraries. Iskander Subekti Yusuf, “Jalan Pembebasan Rakyat Indonesia” (Jakarta, 1972). In the late 1980s, while being held in Cipinang prison, he wrote a series of short essays about PKI history meant to be read only by other surviving party members. These were smuggled out of prison a page at a time. One collection of these essays is held at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Most of the core leadership of the PKI was summarily and secretly executed in late 1965: Aidit, Lukman, Njoto, and Sakirman. All four disappeared after being captured by the army. The one key leader who survived was Sudisman, the General Secretary. He wasn’t captured until December 1966. His statements during and after his trial are important documents. He admitted to being in some vague way “involved” in the September 30th Movement. He called his defense plea at his trial in 1967 Uraian Tanggungjawab. This Indonesian text is available online: indonesia/ indones/ sudisman.htm Benedict Anderson translated this document into English: Analysis of Responsibility (Melbourne: The Works Cooperative, 1975). Sudisman also wrote a document before his execution in 1968. This document has been published in combination with his defense plea: Pleidoi Sudisman dan Statement Politiknya Menyongsong Eksekusi (Jakarta: Pustaka Pena, 2001).

5. Restrospective statements by eyewitnesses

The key witness to the movement was President Sukarno. His statements about it are contained in the speeches that he delivered over the subsequent two years. These speeches have been compiled in: Setiyono, Budi, and Bonnie Triyana, eds. Revolusi Belum Selesai: Kumpulan Pidato Presiden Sukarno 30 September 1965 – Pelengkap Nawaksara, 2 vols. (Semarang: MESIASS, 2003). His statements about the movement have been collected in one book: Kumpulan Pernyataan Bung Karno tentang Gerakan 30 September: Benarkan Gerakan 30 September Didalangi Bung Karno? (Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo, 2006).

The next witnesses to look at are the people who were with Sukarno at some point on the day of the action. The commander of the presidential bodyguard, Lt. Col. Mangil Martowidjojo, has published his memoir: Kesaksian tentang Bung Karno 1945-1967 (Jakarta: Grasindo, 1999). The vice-commander of the palace guard (Cakrabirawa), Maulwi Saelan, has also published a memoir: Dari Revolusi ’45 Sampai Kudeta ’66 (Jakarta: Yayasan Hak Bangsa, 2001). Sukarno’s adjutant, Bambang Widjanarko, published his memoir when Suharto was still in power: Sewindu Dekat Bung Karno (Jakarta: Gramedia, 1988: see especially pages 166-186).

Another key witness was the commander of the Air Force, Omar Dani. He was at Halim airbase on the day of the action and witnessed the discussions between Sukarno and Supardjo. His defense plea at his trial and a lengthy interview with him have been published as: B.A. Surodjo and J.M.V. Soeparno, Tuhan Pergunakanlah Hati, Pikiran dan Tanganku: Pledoi Omar Dani (Jakarta: Institut Studi Arus Informasi, 2002).

Sukarno’s first deputy prime minister, the number two man in the government after the president, Soebandrio, did not witness the movement. He was not in Jakarta on the day of the action. But he has some definite ideas about it in his memoir: Kesaksianku, which was published by a variety of groups in 2001 once the publisher, Gramedia, decided against releasing the book. The book contains little reliable information. A more recent book might be different: Yang Saya Alami Peristiwa G30S: Sebelum, Saat Meletus dan Sesudahnya (Jakarta: Bumi Intitama Sejahtera, 2006).

The head of the Indonesian journalists association (PWI) in 1965, A. Karim D.P., was privy to a lot of information about high politics in Jakarta. He has analyzed the movement in “Tiga Faktor Penyebab G30S,” a lecture in Jakarta at PAKORBA seminar, 25 October 1999.

A useful book is: Surya Lesmana, ed. Saksi dan Pelaku Gestapu: Pengakuan Para Saksi dan Pelaku Sejarah Gerakan 30 September 1965 (Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo, 2005). It is a collection of short statements by 23 different people: eye-witnesses (e.g. Saelan, Herlambang), participants in the movement (e.g. Bungkus and Latief), and military officers who sided with Suharto (e.g. Nasution, Tahir).

6. Autobiographies and Biographies of Military Officers

Anwar, H. Rosihan, et al. eds. Kemal Idris: Bertarung dalam Revolusi. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1996.

Hisyam, Usamah, et al. Feisal Tanjung: Terbaik untuk Rakyat Terbaik bagi ABRI. Jakarta: Yayasan Dharmapena Nusantara, 1999. Feisal Tanjung, later one of Suharto’s right-hand men, was a soldier in the special forces during the attacks on the PKI in 1965-66.

Nasution, A.H. Memenuhi Panggilan Tugas, vol. 6: Masa Kebangkitan Orde Baru. Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1987.

Pandjaitan, Marieke. D.I. Pandjaitan, Pahlawan Revolusi Gugur dalam Seragam Kebesaran: Biografi. Seperti dituturkan kepada dan dituliskan oleh Ramadhan K.H. dan Sugiarta Sriwibawa. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1997.

Pour, Julius. Benny Moerdani: Profile of a Soldier Statesman. Jakarta: Yayasan Kejuangan Sudirman, 1993.

Pour, Julius. Benny: Tragedi Seorang Loyalis. Jakarta: Kata Hasta Pustaka, 2007.

Ramadhan, K.H. ed. Soemitro, Mantan Pangkopkamtip:Dari Pangdam Mulawarman sampai Pangkopkamtib. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1994. This book was translated into English with a pompous title: Soemitro, Former Commander of Indonesian Security Apparatus:Best Selling Memoirs. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1996.

Reksosamodra, Mayor Jenderal Raden Pranoto. Memoar. Yogyakarta: Syarikat, 2002. Pranoto was a senior army general in the army’s commander’s staff in Jakarta. Sukarno appointed him to be interim commander of the army on October 1, 1965 in the absence of Yani. Suharto rejected Sukarno’s appointment of Pranoto and continued as army commander.

Soeharto. Pikiran, Ucapan, dan Tindakan Saya: Otobiografi seperti Dipaparkan kepada G. Dwipayana dan Ramadhan K.H. Jakarta: Citra Lamtoro Gung Persada, 1988. English translation: My Thoughts, Words and Deeds: An Autobiography as Told to G. Dwipayana dan Ramadhan K.H. trans. Sumadi. Jakarta: Citra Lamtoro Gung Persada, 1991.

Subantardjo, M. Riwayat Hidup dan Perjuangan Let. Jend. Anumerta M.T. Haryono. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1979. 43 p. Another version was issued later: Letnan Jenderal M.T. Haryono. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1984. 71 p.

Sugama, Yoga. Memori Jenderal Yoga. Jakarta: Bina Rena Pariwara, 1990.

Sutrisno, Drs. Biografi Pahlawan Revolusi Letnan Jenderal Anumerta Siswondo Parman. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayan, 1980.

Wirahadikusumah, Umar. Dari Peristiwa ke Peristiwa. Jakarta: Yayasan Kesejahteraan Jayakarta, 1983. Also see the biography: Herry Gendut Janarto, Umar Wirahadikusumah: Menegakkan Kebenaran dalam Diam. Malang: Pustaka Kayutangan, 2005.

Yani, Amelia. Profil Seorang Prajurit TNI. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1988. The author is the daughter of General Ahmad Yani. She herself translated the book into English: Profile of a Soldier. Singapore: Heinemann Asia, 1990.

Yani, Ibu A. Ahmad Yani: Sebuah Kenang-Kenangan. Jakarta, 1981. The author was Yani’s wife.

7. Military court trial transcripts

The Indonesian army, as it consolidated its control over the state in early 1966, organized show trials of its political opponents. The trials were in a military court (where all the judges and prosecutors were military personnel) – indeed, an “extraordinary” (luar biasa) military court where the rules were even looser than a regular military court. The name of the court was Mahmillub (Mahkamah Militer Luar Biasa), frequently spelled now with just one ‘l’: Mahmilub. The army published the transcripts of the first two Mahmilub trials: the first, of a communist party leader, Njono, whose trial was in February 1966, and the second, of the nominal leader of the September 30th Movement, Untung.

“Gerakan 30 September” Dihadapan Mahmillub 1. Perkara Njono. Djakarta: Pusat Pendidikan Kehakiman A.D., not dated, 1966.

“Gerakan 30 September” Dihadapan Mahmillub di Djakarta 2. Perkara Untung. Djakarta: Pusat Pendidikan Kehakiman AD, 1966.

The army then published in the same series (titled “The September 30th Movement Put Before the Extraordinary Military Court”) the trial transcript of President Sukarno’s First Deputy Prime Minister, Subandrio, who did not participate in the September 30th Movement. He was accused only of helping create the conditions that led to the PKI’s “treasonous” action. With his trial, it was clear that Suharto’s army was targeting Sukarno loyalists.

“Gerakan 30 September” Dihadapan Mahmillub 3. Perkara Subandrio, two volumes. Jakarta: Pusat Pendidikan Kehakiman AD, 1966.

The same transcript of the Subandrio case was the basis for another book:

Let. Kol. Ali Said and Let Kol. Durmawel Ahmad, Sangkur Adil, Pengupas Fitnah Chianat. Jakarta: Ethika, 1967.

Subandrio’s lawyer was Yap Thiam Hien. Yap’s concluding statement at the trial on behalf of his client is an excellent critique of Mahmilub procedures:

“Pembelaan (Pledooi) Dr. Soebandrio: Pledoi Pembela Kedua, 17 October 1966.” In Daniel Hutagalung, ed. Yap Thiam Hien: Negara, HAM dan Demokrasi. Jakarta: Yayasan Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Indonesia, 1998): 213-236.

Before the trials began, the army’s legal experts wrote up a guidebook to the laws that could be used to try the perpetrators of the September 30th Movement:

Departemen Angkatan Darat, Inspektorat Kehakiman. Himpunan Penetapan-Penetapan Presiden Republik Indonesia dan Peraturan-Peraturan Lainnja untuk Pedoman Penjelesaian dalam Bidang Justisionil Peristiwa “Gerakan 30 September.” Jakarta: Pusat Pendidikan Kehakiman Angkatan Darat, 1965.

Sukarno’s minister in charge of the central bank, Jusuf Muda Dalam, was not put on trial in the Mahmilub. Suharto, as Kopkamtib commander, ordered the Attorney General’s office to handle his case. The Attorney General (Jaksa Agung) put the case through the existing Special State Court of Jakarta while renaming that court, for the purposes of this case, the Court of Subversion (Peradilan Subversi). Muda Dalam was charged with extending credit to import firms that did not pay back the money. The court called that practice “subversion.” The Suharto regime alleged outside of court that he had been working for the PKI to create a revolutionary situation that climaxed in the September 30th Movement. The Attoney General’s office later published the trial transcript:

Proses Jusuf Muda Dalam Jakarta: Kejaksaan Agung Bidang Khusus, 1967.

The Department of Foreign Affairs published a short book about the Mahmilub trial of Sjam.

Proses Pengadilan Mahmillub: Otak Penggerak Pelaksana Peristiwa ‘Gerakan 30 September/PKI.’ Jakarta: Seksi Dokumentasi, Deplu, 1968.

An independent anti-PKI author published a book about the first two Mahmilub trials for Njono and Untung.

Harris Muda Nasution. Hukum Mati Njono, Untung: Mahmillub ke-1, Pengadilan Gembong2 Gestapu-PKI. Jakarta: Harris, 1966.

Many other trial transcripts remain unpublished yet available in various libraries and archives. Cornell University Library, for instance, has the transcripts for the trials of Omar Dani, commander of the air force (1966), Moeljono Soerjowardojo, an army major in Yogyakarta (1966), Brig. Gen. M.S. Supardjo (1967), Utomo Ramelan, the mayor of Solo (1967), Tamuri Hidayat, a private in Bali (1967), Sjam (1968), and Abdullah Alihamy, a PKI leader in Riau (1970).

8. Scholarly Analyses of the September 30th Movement

Anderson, Benedict, and McVey, Ruth. A Preliminary Analysis of the October 1, 1965 Coup in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Modern Indonesia Project, 1971.

Anderson, Benedict, and McVey, Ruth. “What happened in Indonesia?,” New York Review of Books (1 June 1978).

Anderson, Benedict. “How did the Generals Die?” Indonesia no. 43 (April 1987): 109-134.

Anderson, Benedict. “Tentang Pembunuhan Massal ’65.’” Interview with Ben Abel distributed on the Apakabar email list, September 24, 1996.

Anderson, Benedict. “Scholarship and Raison d’État: Personal Experience” Indonesia no. 62 (October 1996): 1-18.

Anderson, Benedict. “Petrus Dadi Ratu.” New Left Review 3 (May/June 2000): 5-15.

Bass, Jerome. “The PKI and the Attempted Coup.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 1, no. 1 (March 1970): 96-105.

Beise, Kerstin. Apakah Soekarno Terlibat Peristiwa G30S? Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2004.

Brands, H.W. “The Limits of Manipulation: How the United States Didn’t Topple Sukarno.” The Journal of American History 76, no. 3 (December 1989): 785-808.

Bunnell, Frederick. “American ‘Low Posture’ Policy toward Indonesia in the Months Leading to the 1965 Coup” Indonesia, no. 50 (October 1990): 29-60.

Center for Information Analysis. Gerakan 30 September: Antara Fakta dan Rekayasa. Yogyakarta: Center for Information Analysis, 1999.

Crouch, Harold. “Another Look at the Indonesian ‘Coup.’” Indonesia no. 15 (April 1973): 1-20.

Djarot, Eros, ed. Siapa Sebenarnya Soeharto: Fakta dan Kesaksian para Pelaku Sejarah G-30-S/PKI. Jakarta: Mediakita, 2006.

Dommen, Arthur. “The Attempted Coup in Indonesia.” China Quarterly no. 25 (January-March 1966): 144-170.

Gunawan, Basuki. Kudeta, Staaatsgreep in Djakarta, de Achtergronden van de 30 September-Beweging in Indonesie. Meppel: Boom, 1968.

Hadi, Syamsu. And Eddi Elison, eds. Bung Karno Difitnah. Jakarta: Yayasan Bung Karno, 2006. A collection of essays criticizing the book Antonie Dake, The Sukarno File.

Harsutejo. G-30-S: Sejarah yang Digelapkan. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 2003.

Hindley, Donald. “Political Power and the October 1965 Coup in Indonesia.” The Journal of Asian Studies 26, no. 2 (February 1967): 237-249.

Holtzappel, C. “The 30 September Movement: A Political Movement of the Armed Forces or an Intelligence Operation?” Journal of Contemporary Asia 9, no. 2 (1979): 216-240.

Katoppo, Aristides, ed. Menyingkap Kabut Halim 1965. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1999.

Lev, Daniel. “Indonesia 1965: The Year of the Coup.” Asian Survey 6, no. 2 (February 1966): 103-110.

Luhulima, James. Menyingkap Dua Hari Tergelap di Tahun 1965: Melihat Peristiwa G30S dari Perspektif Lain. Jakarta: Kompas, 2006.

Pauker, Guy. “The Gestapu Affair of 1965,” Southeast Asia: An International Journal 1, nos. 1-2 (1971).

Rey, Lucien. “Dossier of the Indonesian Drama.” New Left Review 36 (March-April 1966): 26-40. This article includes a translation of an interview with Njoto conducted by Japanese journalists in late 1965.

Roosa, John. Pretext for Mass Murder: The September 30th Movement and Suharto’s Coup d’État in Indonesia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006. Indonesian translation: Dalih Pembunuhan Massal: Gerakan Tiga Puluh September dan Kudeta Suharto. Jakarta: ISSI dan Hasta Mitra, 2008.

Scott, Peter Dale. “The United States and the Overthrow of Sukarno, 1965-67.” Pacific Affairs 58, no. 2 (Summer 1985): 239-264.

Sophiaan, Manai. Kehormatan Bagi Yang Berhak: Bung Karno Tidak Terlibat G30S/PKI. Jakarta: Yayasan Mencerdaskan Kehidupan Bangsa, 1994.

Utrecht, Ernst. “An Attempt to Corrupt Indonesian History.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 5, no. 1 (1975): 99-102. A critique of Dake’s arguments.

Weatherbee, Donald. “Interpretations of ‘Gestapu’: The 1965 Indonesian Coup.” World Affairs 132, no. 4 (1970).

Wertheim, W.F. “Indonesia Before and After the Untung Coup.” Pacific Affairs 39, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Summer 1966): 115-127.

Wertheim, W.F. “Suharto and the Untung Coup – The Missing Link.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 1, no. 2 (Winter 1970): 50-57.

Wertheim, W.F. “Whose Plot? – New Light on the 1965 Events.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 9, no. 2 (1979): 197-215.

Wertheim, W.F. “Sejarah Tahun 1965 Yang Tersumbunyi.” Arah, no. 1 (1990).

Wertheim, W.F. “Indonesia’s Hidden History.” In Pramoedya Ananta Toer 70 Tahun: Essays to Honour Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s 70th Year, edited by Bob Hering. N.p.: Yayasan Kabar Seberang, 1995.

III. The Mass Killings

1. Indonesian government documents

“Laporan tentang Hasil Fact Finding Commission KOTI.” Issued January 10, 1966. President Sukarno, in a meeting of the Supreme Operations Command (Komando Operasi Tertinggi) on December 23, 1965, ordered an investigation into the mass arrests and mass murders in Central Java, East Java, Bali, and North Sumatra. A commission was formed with the Minister of the Interior, Major General Soemarno Soeroatmodjo, as its head. The nine members of the commission spent a little more than a week conducting their investigations (December 27, 1965-January 6, 1966) and then spent only 3-4 days writing the report. The brief report has never been made public but copies have privately circulated. The report provides the entirely unreliable figures of 78,500 people killed and 106,000 people imprisoned.

“Report from East Java.” Trans. Benedict Anderson. Indonesia no. 41 (April 1986): 135-149.

2. Foreign journalists’ accounts

Contenay, Jean. “Another Bloodbath?” Far Eastern Economic Review. 23 November 1967; and “Heritage of Blood,” Far Eastern Economic Review. 14 December 1967.

Dodd, Tim. “What Lies Beneath.” The Australian Financial Review Magazine (November 2001), pp. 34-42.

The Economist. “One Million Dead?” and “And How They Died.” 20 August 1966.

Hughes, John. Indonesian Upheaval. New York: McKay, 1967. Republished as: The End of Sukarno. Singapore: Archipelago Press, 2002.

King, Seth S. “The Great Purge in Indonesia.” New York Times Magazine. 8 May 1966.

Mellor, Bridget. “Political Killings in Indonesia,” New Statesman. 5 August 1966.

Moser, Don. “Where the rivers ran crimson from butchery.” Life. 1 July 1966.

Sutton, Horace. “Indonesia’s Night of Terror.” Saturday Review. 4 February 1967.

Topping, Seymour. “Slaughter of Reds Gives Indonesia a Grim Legacy.” New York Times. 24 August 1966.

3. Survivors’ stories

Kurniawan, Budi. And Yani Andriansyah. Menolak Menyerah: Menyingkap Tabir Keluarga Aidit. Yogyakarta: Era Publisher, 2005.

Nyoman Wijaya. Biografi Si Penggembala Itik: John Ketut Pantja: Pengalaman dan Pemikiran. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2001. The subject of this biography, John Ketut Pantja, is the younger brother of a leader of the PKI in Bali, Wayan Serata, who was killed in 1965. Information about Serata appears on pp. 148-151.

4. Eyewitness accounts

Anon, “By the Banks of the Brantas”, appendix A of Human Rights Watch, Injustice, Persecution, Eviction: A Human Rights Update on Indonesia and East Timor (New York, 1990). Reprinted in Samuel Totten, W.S. Parsons, I.W. Charney, eds., A Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. London: Routledge, 2004.

Rochijat, Pipit. “Saya PKI atau Bukan PKI?” Majalah Gotong Royong. Berlin, Perhimpunan Pelajar Indonesia (April 1984). English translation: “Am I PKI or non-PKI?” Trans. Benedict Anderson. Indonesia no. 41 (April 1986): 37-56.

Soe Hok Gie. Zaman Peralihan. Yogyakarta: Bentang Budaya, 1995.

5. Perpetrator accounts

Sunyoto, Agus, et al. Banser Berjihad Menumpas PKI. Tulungagung: Pesulukan Thoriqoh Agung, 1996.

Tri Chandra AP. “Banser Antara Perebutan dalam Ketidakpastian dan Kekerasan Politik 1965-1966.” Tashwirul Afkar no. 15 (2003): 121-138.

Wajidi, Farid. “Syarikat dan Eksperimentasi Rekonsiliasi Kulturalnya: Sebuah Pengamatan Awal.” Tashwirul Afkar no. 15 (2003): 55-79.

Zakaria, Fathurrahman. Geger Gerakan 30 September 1965, Rakyat NTB Melawan Bahaya Merah. Mataram: Sumurmas, 1997; 2nd printing 2001.

6. Fictional accounts

Aleida, Martin. “Malam Kelabu.” Horison 5, no. 2 (Februari 1970).

Aveling, Harry, ed. and trans., Gestapu: Indonesia Short Stories on the Abortive Communist Coup of 30th September 1965 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii southeast Asian Studies Working Paper no. 6, 1975). All of the short stories in this collection, with the exception of the one written by Martin Aleida, represent the work of the anti-communist writers of Horison and Sastra.

Frederick, William and John McGlynn, eds., Reflection on Rebellion: Stories from the Indonesian Upheavals of 1948 and 1965. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1983. This collection contains two stories related to the 1965 events, both by Umar Kayam: “Bawak,” and “Sri Sumarah.”

Hoerip, Satyagraha. “Pada Titik Kulminasi.” Horison 1, no. 3 (September 1966). Reprinted in: Ajip Rosidi, ed. Laut Biru Langit Biru: Bungarampai Sastra Indonesia Mutaakhir. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1977: 294-311

Hoerip, Satyagraha. “Pembrontakan Gestapu/PKI dalam Cerpen-Cerpen Indonesia.” In Pamusuk Eneste, ed. Cerpen Indoensia Mutakhir: Antologi Esei dan Kritik. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1983.

Kayam, Umar. “Musim Gugur Kembali di Connecticut.” Horison 4, no. 10 (Agustus 1969).

Kayam, Umar. “Bawuk.” Horison 5, no. 1 (January 1970).

Kipanjikusmin. “Bintang Maut.” Sastra 5, no. 1 (November 1967).

Kipanjikusmin. “Doba Kain.” Sastra 6, no. 5 (Mei 1968).

Nugroho, Sosiawan. “Sebuah Perjoangan Kecil.” Horison 2, no. 10 (October 1967).

Poyk, Gerson. “Perempuan dan Anak-anaknya.” Horison 1, no. 5 (November 1966).

Sjoekoer, Mohammad. “Maut.” Sastra 7, no. 10 (October 1969).

Putu Arya Tirtawirya. “Kegelapan di Bawah Matahari” yang diterbitkan dalam buku berjudul Kegelapan di Bawah Matahari dan Cerpen-Cerpen Lainnya. Ende, Flores: Nusa Indah, 1979. English translation: ‘When People Become Numbers,’ Latitudes Magazine, vol. 10 (2002).

Ugati. “Ancaman.” Sastra 7, no. 6 (Juni 1969).

Usamah. “Perang dan Kemanusiaan: Sebuah Tjatatan Pengalaman Pribadi.” Horison 4, no. 8 (Agustus 1969): 230-253. Translated in English: “War and Humanity: Notes on Personal Experience.” trans. Helen Jarvis. Indonesia no. 9 (April 1970): 89-99.

Zulidahlan. “Maka Sempurnalah Penderitaan Saya di Muka Bumi.” Horison 2, no. 3 (Maret 1967).

7. Scholarly studies

Budiardjo, Carmel. “Indonesia: Mass extermination and the consolidation of authoritarian power.” in A. George, ed. Western State Terrorism. London: Polity Press, 1991.

Cribb, Robert, ed. The Indonesian Killings: 1965-1966: Studies from Java and Bali. Clayton, Victoria: Monash University, 1990. Indonesian translation:

Cribb, Robert. “Indonesia’s Chinese: The Genocide that Never Was.” NIASnytt. 1 (1999).

Cribb, Robert. “How Many Deaths? Problems in the Statistics of Massacre in Indonesia (1965-1966) and East Timor (1975-1980).” In Violence in Indonesia, edited by Ingrid Wessel and Georgia Wimhofer. Hamburg: Abera, 2001.

Cribb, Robert. “Genocide in Indonesia, 1965-1966.” Journal of Genocide Research 3, no. 2 (2001): 219-239.

Cribb, Robert. “Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965-1966.” Asian Survey 42, no. 4 (July-August 2002): 550-563.

Dwyer, Leslie and Degung Santikarma. “When the World Turned to Chaos: 1965 in Bali and its Aftermath,” in The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective, edited by Robert Gellately and Ben Kiernan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Eklöf, Stefan. “The Mass Killings in Bali 1965-1966: Historical and Cultural Approaches.” In Frans Hüsken and Huub de Jonge, eds. Violence and Vengeance: Discontent and Conflict in New Order Indonesia. Saarbrucken: Verlag fur Entwicklungspolitik, 2002. Translated into Indonesian as: “Pembunuhan-Pembunuhan di Bali 1965-1966: Pendekatan Historis dan Budaya.” In Frans Hüsken and Huub de Jonge, eds. Orde Zonder Order: Kekerasan dan Dendam di Indonesia 1965-1998. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2003. This article is largely a commentary on G. Robinson’s book, The Dark Side of Paradise.

Farid, Hilmar. “Indonesia’s Original Sin: Mass Killings and Capitalist Expansion, 1965-66.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 6, no. 1 (February 2005): 3-16. Reprinted in Kuan-Hsing Chen and Chua Beng Huat, eds., The Inter-Asia Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge, 2007: pp. 207-222.

Feith, Herb. “Killings in Indonesia: To moralise or analyse: a dialogue.” Nation. 19 February 1966, 9-11.

Griswold, Deirdre. Indonesia, the Bloodbath that Was. New York: World View Publishers, 1975.

Hasworo, Rinto Tri. “Penangkapan dan Pembunuhan di Jawa Tengah Setelah G-30-S.” In Tahun yang Tak Pernah Berakhir, edited by John Roosa, Ayu Ratih, and Hilmar Farid. Jakarta: Elsam, 2004.

Hefner, Robert W. The Political Economy of Mountain Java: An Interpretive History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990: 193–227.

Kasenda, Peter. “Sarwo Edhie Wibowo dan Operasi Militer: Penghancur GESTAPU/PKI dan Pendobrak Orde Lama.” Prisma (1992).

Naipospos, Bonar Tigor. And Rahadi T. Wiratama, eds. Plot TNI AD-Barat di Balik Tragedi ’65. Jakarta: Tapol, MIK, and Solidamor, 2001. A collection of translations of articles written by C. Holtzappel, W.F. Wertheim, David Johnson, Kathy Kadane, Ralph McGehee, Mark Curtis, and Mike Head.

Robinson, Geoffrey. “The Post-Coup Massacre in Bali.” in Daniel Lev and Ruth McVey, eds., Making Indonesia: Essays on Modern Indonesia in Honor of George McT. Kahin. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, 1996.

Robinson, Geoffrey. The Dark Side of Paradise: Political Violence in Bali. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995. Indonesian translation: Sisi Gelap Pulau Dewata: Sejarah Kekerasan Politik. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2006.

Setyadi, Rumekso, and Saiful H. Shodiq. “Dari Ksatria Menjadi Paria: Degradasi Peran dan Pembunuhan Politik Sistematik: Catatan Awal Peristiwa ‘65/’66 di Yogyakarta.” Tashwirul Afkar no. 15 (2003): 109-120.

Siregar, M.R. Tragedi Manusia dan Kemanusiaan: Kasus Indonesia: Sebuah Holokaus yang Diterima Sesudah Perang Dunia Kedua. Surrey, England: Tapol, 1995.

Sloan, Stephen. A Study in Political Violence: The Indonesian Experience. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1971.

Sujatmiko, Iwan Gardono. “Kehancuran PKI Tahun 1965-1966.” Sejarah 9. Jakarta: Masyarakat Sejarawan Indonesia, n.d., c. 2001.

Sujatmiko, Iwan Gardono. “The Destruction of the Indonesian communist party (PKI): A Comparative Analysis of East Java and Bali.” Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1992.

Sulistyo, Hermawan. Palu Arit di Ladang Tebu: Sejarah Pembantaian Massal yang Terlupakan 1965-1966 (Jombang-Kediri 1965-66). Jakarta: KPG, 2000. This book is a translation of the author’s dissertation: “The Forgotten Years: The Missing History of Indonesia’s Mass Slaughter (Jombang-Kediri 1965–1966).” Ph.D. thesis, Arizona State University, 1997. Despite the book’s title, only one chapter of the book is actually about the massacres in Jombang and Kediri. That chapter is based on remarkably few interviews. Sulistiyo, while ignoring the role of the army, winds up blaming the civilians of the NU for the killings.

Webb, R.A.F. Paul. “The Sickle and the Cross: Christians and Communists in Bali, Flores, Sumba and Timor, 1965-67.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 17, no. 1 (March 1986).

8. The U.S. government and the killings

Howland, Richard Cabot. “The Lessons of the September 30 Affair.” Studies in Intelligence 14: 2 (Fall 1970): 13-29. Howland comments on the difficulty of gaining reliable information about the killings.

Kadane, Kathy. “Ex-Agents say CIA compiled death lists for Indonesians.” San Francisco Examiner. May 20, 1990. The journalist Kathy Kadane filed a news story for States News Service in May 1990 that was picked up by a number of newspapers, including the Washington Post and Boston Globe. The story was about how the U.S. embassy in Jakarta provided thousands of names of communists to the Indonesian army. Kadane based her story on interviews with embassy officials: Marshall Green, Edward Masters, Jack Lydman, and Robert Martens. She has deposited the recordings of her interviews at the National Security Archive collection in the George Washington University library (in Washington D.C.). The former CIA agent, Ralph McGehee, supported Kadane’s story: Covert Action Quarterly (Fall 1990): The New York Times did not run Kadane’s story. Instead it published a critique of the story. Michael Wines, “C.I.A. Tie Asserted in Indonesia Purge.” 12 July 1990,

9. Films

Forty Years of Silence (2008). Produced by Robert Lemelson. See the website:

Puisi tak Terkuburkan (2001). Film by Garin Nugroho. Indonesia. The film is based on the experience of Ibrahim Kadir, a poet in Aceh, who was imprisoned in 1965 and witnessed people being taken out of prison to be executed.

Shadowplay (2002). An excellent film made by Chris Hilton and Sylvie Le Clezio. Australia. Shown on some PBS stations in the US. See the website about the film:

Terlena (2004). Produced by Andre Vltchek. See the website:

IV. Political Imprisonment, Stigmatization and Exile

1. Indonesian government documents

Departemen Penerangan. Perlakuan terhadap Mereka yang Terlibat G.30.S/PKI Golongon C. Jakarta, 1975. 51 p.

Departemen Penerangan. Peraturan Perundang-Undangan dan Ketentuan-Ketentuan tentang Larangan terhadap Kegiatan Sisa-Sisa G.30.S/PKI dan Komunisme di Indonesia. Jakarta, 1988.

Direktorat Jenderal Sosial Politik. Buku-saku Nomor 200/1263 bagi Pelaksana, Pembinaan dan Pengawasan Bekas Tahanan dan Bekas Narapidana G.30.S/PKI. Jakarta, 1989. 66 p.

Direktorat Jenderal Sosial Politik. Pedoman Teknis Nomor 730.351/4211 tentang Pelaksanaan Pembinaan dan Pengawasan Bekas Tahanan dan Bekas Narapidana G.30.S/PKI. Jakarta, c. 1990.

Himpunan Peraturan Bersih Diri dan Bersih Lingkungan dari G.30-S/PKI. Jakarta: Dharma Bakti, 1988.

Indonesian Department of Foreign Affairs. Indonesian Government Policy in Dealing with the G30S/PKI Detainees. Jakarta, 1978.

Kejaksaan Agung. Buku Petundjuk Penindjauan Kepulau Buru. Issued by the Departemen Penerangan, written December 2, 1969. 10p.

Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban. Tatacara Pemberian “Surat Keterangan Tidak Terlibat G.30.S/PKI” dan Penjelasan Kas Kopkamtib tentang Pengembalian Sebagian dari Tahanan G.30.S/PKI Golongan B ke Masyarakat. Jakarta: Departeman Penerangan, 1975.

Komnas Perempuan (National Commission on Violence Against Women). Kejahatan Terhadap Kemanusiaan Berbasis Jender: Mendengarkan Suara Perempuan Korban Peristiwa 1965. Jakarta, 2007.

Marsudi, Djamal. Laporan Pertama dari Pulau Buru. Jakarta: Intibuku Utama, 1971. 62p.

2. Foreign press reports

May, Brian. The Indonesian Tragedy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978: pp. 27-40. May worked four years as the correspondent of Agence France-Presse in Jakarta. The information presented on the political prisoners is valuable though the main thesis of the book is classicly Orientalist: the Indonesians have a completely different culture that is inscrutable to ‘the West.’

3. Memoirs of the political prisoners

Ajoeb, Joebaar. Gerhana Seni Rupa Modern Indonesia. Jakarta, 1992.

Bud., S., “Salemba,” serialized in Arena, part 5: “Indoktrinasi di Lapangan Salemba.”

Budiardjo, Carmel. Surviving Indonesia’s Gulag. London: Cassell, 1995.

Bustam, Mia. Sudjojono dan Aku. Jakarta: Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2006.

Bustam, Mia. Dari Kamp ke Kamp: Cerita Seorang Perempuan. Jakarta: Spasi, 2008.

Demokrasno, A. Gumelar. Dari Kalong Sampai Pulau Buru: 11 Tahun dalam Sekapan, Penjara, Pembuangan, dan Kerja Rodi. Yogyakarta: Pusat Sejarah dan Etika Politik, 2006.

Havelaar, Ruth (Jitske Mulder). Quartering: A Story of a Marriage in Indonesia During the Eighties. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Papers on Southeast Asia, no. 24, 1991. Translated into Dutch as: Inkwartiering, Indonesie door de Ogen van een Nederlandse Vrouw. Breda, 1992. Translated into Indonesian as: Selamat Tinggal Indonesia. Jakarta: Lentera, 1995; republished: Jakarta: Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2002. Mulder married an ex-tapol, Hersri Setiawan, and lived with him in Jakarta.

Ibu Marni. “I am a Leaf in a Storm.” trans. by Anton Lucas. Indonesia no. 47 (April 1989): 49-60.

Moestahal, H. Achmadi. Dari Gontor ke Pulau Buru. Yogyakarta: Syarikat, 2002.

Munadi. “Yang Tak Terlupakan.” Jakarta, 1999.

Oei Tjoe Tat, Memoar Oei Tjoe Tat, Pembantu Presiden Soekarno (Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 1995).

Padmodiwirio, Soehario. Memoar Hario Kecik: Autobiografi Seorang Mahasiswa Prajurit. Jakarta: Obor, 1995.

Padmodiwirio, Soehario. Memoar Hario Kecik 2. Jakarta: Obor, 2001.

Padmodiwirio, Soehario. Dari Moskwa ke Peking: Memoar Hario Kecik 3. Jakarta: Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2005.

Pandu Nusa. “The Path of Suffering: The Report of a Political Prisoner on his Journey through Various Prison Camps in Indonesia.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 19, no. 1 (1987).

Pramoedya Ananta Toer. Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu, 2 volumes. Jakarta: Lentera, 1995-1997.

Prayitno, Suyatno. Astaman Hasibuan. Buntoro. Kesaksian Tapol Orde Baru: Guru, Seniman, dan Prajurit Tjakra. Jakarta: ISAI and Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2003.

Rachmadi, Tristuti. “My life as a shadow master under Suharto.” In Mary Zurbachen, ed. Beginning to Remember: The Past in the Indonesian Present. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Raid, Hasan. Pergulatan Muslim Komunis. Yogyakarta: LKPSM/Syarikat, 2001.

Reksoprodjo, Setiadi. Refleksi Orang Biasa Dalam Sejarah yang Luar Biasa. Jakarta: Pakorba, 2007.

Saroso, Kresno. Dari Salemba ke Pulau Buru: Memoar Seorang Tapol Orde Baru. Jakarta: ISAI and Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2002.

Sasongko, HD Haryo. Anak Bangsa Terpidana. Jakarta: Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2003. Although the author presents this book as a memoir, many of the events appear to be fictionalized.

Sasongko, HD Haryo. Korupsi Sejarah dan Kisah Derita Akar Rumput. Jakarta: Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2005.

Setiawan, Hersri. “Dua Wajah dalam Satu Haribaan: Warna-warna Pendewasaan di Pulau Buru.” Prisma (Oktober 1979).

Setiawan, Hersri. “Keeping Your Head: Memoir of Detention in Prison.” Inside Indonesia (October 1984).

Setiawan, Hersri. “Art and Entertainment in New Order’s Jails,” Indonesia, no. 59 (April 1985): 1-20.

Setiawan, Hersri. Dunia yang Belum Sudah. Kockengen, 1993. 46 p. This pamphlet, privately published by the author, contains essays about life on Buru island and exile literature.

Setiawan, Hersri. Aku Ex-Tapol. Yogyakarta: Galang, 2003.

Setiawan, Hersri. Memoar Pulau Buru. Magelang: Indonesiatera, 2004.

Setiawan, Hersri. Diburu di Pulau Buru. Yogyakarta: Galang Press, 2006.

Setiawan, Hersri. Kidung untuk Korban: Dari Tutur Sepuluh Narasumber Eks-Tapol Sala. Surakarta: Pakorba Sala, 2006.

Setiawan, Hersri. “Between the Bars.” Trans. Mary Zurbuchen. Manoa 12, no. 1 (2000): 25-34.

Siagian, Bachtiar. Catatan Kemarau. No place or date of publication. 24 p. Poems written in prison 1972-75.

Siagian, Bachtiar. Elegi Tanah Deli. Jakarta, 1987. 62 p. Stories about plantation work in Sumatra written 1950-55.

Siauw Giok Tjhan. “Berbagai Catatan dari Berbagai Macam Cerita yang Dikumpulkan dalam Percakapan2 dengan Berbagai Teman Tahanan di Salemba, Rumah Tahanan Chusus, dan Nirbaya.” Jakarta, typescript, not dated, c. late 1970s.

Siauw Giok Tjhan. Under the pseudonym of Sigit. “The Smiling General Harus Dituntut ke Mahkamah.” Written 1979. Privately printed and circulated 1996.

Siauw Tiong Djin, Siauw Giok Tjhan. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 1999.

Sibarani, Agustin. Karikatur dan Politik. Jakarta, ISAI, Garba Budaya, and Media Lintas Inti Nusantara, 2001.

Soepardjan, Adam. Mendobrak Penjara Rezim Soeharto. Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2004.

Sudjinah. Terempas Gelombang Pasang: Riwayat Wartawati dalam Penjara Orde Baru. Jakarta: Pustaka Utan Kayu, 2003.

Sulami. Perempuan-Keberaran dan Penjara. Jakarta: Cipta Lestari, 1999.

Sulami. Merentang Purnama. Jakarta: Cipta Lestari, 2001.

Suparman, H. Sebuah Catatan Tragedi 1965: Dari Pulau Buru Sampai ke Mekah. Bandung: Nuansa, 2006.

Taher, Yoseph Tugio. Riau Berdarah: Kisah Perjalanan Hidupku. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 2006.

Tamrin, Misbach. Amrus Natalsya dan Bumi Tarung. Bogor: AMNAT Studio, 2008.

Tjiptaning, Ribka. Aku Bangga Jadi Anak PKI. Jakarta: Cipta Lestari, 2002. The author is a daughter of political prisoner.

Wilson and Edy Haryadi. Riwayat Gembel Soedijono. Jakarta: privately published, 2006. The subject of this biography, Gembel Soedijono, was detained without charge for eight months in 1966, then released at the request of Col. Ali Moetopo, Suharto’s right-hand man, so that he could work as an intelligence agent.

4. Fictional literature written by tapols

Aleida, Martin. Malam Kelabu, Ilyana dan Aku: Kumpulan Empat Cerita Pendek. Jakarta: Yayasan Darma Warga, 1998. 88 p.

Aleida, Martin. Layang-Layang Itu Tak Lagi Mengepak Tinggi-Tinggi. Jakarta: Emansipasi, 1999.

Aleida, Martin. Perempuan depan Kaca: Dan Dongeng dari Dunia Lain. Jakarta: Darma Warga, 2000. 96 p.

Aleida, Martin. Leontin Dewangga: Kumpulan Cerpen. Jakarta. Kompas, 2003.

Aleida, Martin. Jamangilak Tak Pernah Menangis. Jakarta: Gramedia, 2004.

Aleida, Martin. Dendam Perempuan dan Cerita Lain. Jakarta: Pusat Dokumentasi Sastra H.B. Jassin, 2006.

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. The ‘Buru tetralogy’ consists of four books all published by Hasta Mitra in Jakarta: Bumi Manusia (1980), Anak Semua Bangsa (1980), Jejak Langkah (1985) and Rumah Kaca (1988). These books have been translated into English by Max Lane and published in various editions by William Morrow and Penguin under the titles: This Earth of Mankind, Child of All Nations, Footsteps, and Glass House. They have been translated into many other languages besides. Hilmar Farid has written an article explaining how they were written on Buru and later published in Jakarta: “Tentang Kelahiran Bumi Manusia.” In Bonnie Triyana and Max Lane, eds. Liber Amicorum: 80 Tahun Joesoef Isak (Jakarta: ISAI, Komunitas Bambu, and Praxis, 2008): 65-85. For more information on Pramoedya see the website:

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. Arus Balik. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 1995. This massive novel about Java in the 16th century was written on Buru island. It has been translated into Dutch by Henk Maier. One chapter has been translated into English and discussed by John Roosa: “The Port of Tuban.” Emergences 10, no. 2 (2000): 277-300.

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu. 2 vols. These two volumes consist of his essays about life in the prison camps on Buru island 1969-79. Both volumes were privately published by Pramoedya using Lentera as the name of the publisher. The first volume was published in 1995 and the second in 1997. Selections from these two volumes have been translated into English by Willem Samuels (pseudonym) as: A Mute’s Soliloquy: A Memoir. (New York: Hyperion, 1999; and later editions by Penguin).

Sukanta, Putu Oka. Selat Bali: Sajak-Sajak Buat Burung Camar. Jakarta: Inkultra Foundation, 1982. 55 p.

Sukanta, Putu Oka. Tembang Jalak Bali: The Song of the Starling. Bilingual edition. Trans. Keith Foulcher. Kuala Lumpur: Wira Karya, 1986.

Sukanta, Putu Oka. Keringat Mutiara. Jakarta: Kalyanamitra, 1991. English translation: The Sweat of Pearls: Short Stories about Women of Bali. Trans. Vern Cork. Darlington, Australia: Darma, 1999.

Sukanta, Putu Oka. Merajut Harkat. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1999.

Sukanta, Putu Oka. Di Atas Siang di Bawah Malam. Jakarta: GagasMedia, 2004.

Sukanta, Putu Oka. Rindu Terluka. Jakarta: Metafor, 2004. English translation: Wounded Longing. Jakarta: Survivor, 2004.

5. Scholarly studies

Budiardjo, Carmel. “Repression and Political Imprisonment.” In Malcolm Caldwell, ed. Ten Years’ Military Terror in Indonesia. London: Spokesman Books, 1975.

Dermawan T., Agus and Wright, Astri. Hendra Gunawan: A Great Modern Indonesian Painter. Jakarta: Ciputra Foundation and Archipelago Press, 2001.

Fealy, Greg. The Release of Indonesia’s Political Prisoners: Domestic vs. Foreign Policy. Clayton: Monash University Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, 1995.

Feith, Herb. “A blot on the New Order’s record: The fate of 80,000 political prisoners in Indonesia.” A shorter version appeared in The New Republic, 13 April 1968.

Kakiailatu, Toeti. “Bekas Tahanan Politik G30S/PKI: Studi tentang Strategi Adaptasi Mereka terhadap Keluarga, Masyarakat dan Habitat Baru.” Thesis. Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Indonesia, 1984.

Krisnadi, I.G. “Sistem Pertanian Kolektif Tapol Buru 1969-79.” Gerbang 4, no. 9 (April-May 2001).

Krisnadi, I.G. Tahanan Politik Pulau Buru 1969-1979. Jakarta: LP3ES, 2001.

Nugroho, Singgih. Menyintas dan Menyeberang: Perpindahan Messal Keagamaan Pasca 1965 di Pedesaan Jawa. Yogyakarta: Syarikat, 2008. An excellent study of single village near Salatiga and the large number of people there who joined Christian churches during and after the terror of 1965-66.

Sriwahyuntari, Floriberta Aning. Kromo Kiwo: Mereka yang Tak Pernah Menyerah. Yogyakarta: Insist Press, 2004.

Tapol. Treatment of Indonesian Political Prisoners: Forced Labour and Transmigration. London, 1978. Tapol, based in Britain and led by Carmel Budiardjo, issued many reports and articles on the political prisoners in Indonesia and played a crucial role in raising international awareness of the problem. See its website:

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Indonesia’s Political Prisoners.” Pacific Affairs 49, no. 4 (Winter 1976-77): 625-647.

Van Klinken, Helene. “Coming Out.” Inside Indonesia no. 58 (April-June 1999):

6. Works by Indonesians in exile

Aidit, Asahan. Cinta, Perang, dan Ilusi: Antara Moskow-Hanoi: Kumpulan Cerpen Memoar. Depok: Lembaga Humaniora, 2006. The author is a younger brother of D.N. Aidit.

Aidit, Asahan. Alhamdulillah: Roman Memoar. Jakarta: Lembaga Sastra Pembebasan, 2006.

Aidit, Sobron. Memoar. Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana, 2002. The author is a younger brother of D.N. Aidit.

Aidit, Sobron. Razia Agustus: Kumpulan Cerpen. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2004.

Aidit, Sobron. Buku yang Dipenjarakan: Memoar Orang Terbuang. Bandung: Nuansa, 2006.

Alam, Ibarruri Putri. Roman Biografis Ibarruri Putri Alam, Anak Sulung D.N. Aidit. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 2006. The author is D.N. Aidit’s daughter.

Alham, A. (Asahan Aidit). 23 Sajak Menangisi Viet Tri. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1998.

Alham, Asahan. (Asahan Aidit). Perang dan Kembang. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 2001.

Budiman, Kuslan. Bendera Itu Masih Berkibar. Jakarta: Suara Bebas, 2005.

Fanggidaej, Francisca C. Memoar Perempuan Revolusioner. (Ditulis oleh Hersri Setiawan berdasarkan wawancara dengan Francisca Fanggidaej.) Yogyakarta: Galang, 2006.

Hanafi, A.M. A.M. Hanafi Menggugat. Lile, France: Edition Montblanc, 1998.

Isa, Ibrahim. Suara Seorang Eksil. Jakarta: Pustaka Pena, 2001.

Kembara, A. et al. Di Negeri Orang: Puisi Penyair Indonesia Eksil. Jakarta: Lontar and Yayasan Sejarah Budaya Indonesia, 2002.

Kreasi. A journal published by Indonesian exiles in Europe. It was published from Amsterdam from 1989 to 1997, and then again from 2001 to 2002.

Kusni, J.J. Negara Etnik: Beberapa Gagasan Pemberdayaan Suku Dayak. Yogyakarta: Forum Studi Perubahan dan Peradaban, 2001.

Kusni, J.J. Di Tengah Pergolakan: Turba Lekra di Klaten. Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2005. Originally published Limberg, Germany: Yayasan Langer, 1979.

Kusni, J.J. Membela Martabat Diri dan Indonesia: Koperasi Restoran Indonesia di Paris. Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2005.

Kusni, J.J. Aku Telah Dikutuk Jadi Laut: Surat-Surat Seorang Eksil kepada (Seorang) Anak Muda NU. Yogyakarta: Syarikat, 2007.

Mahdi, Waruno. Rekonsiliasi dan Integrasi di Masa Globalisasi. Jakarta: Suara Bebas, 2004.

Resobowo, Basuki. Bercermin di Muka Kaca: Seniman, Seni dan Masyarakat. Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2005.

Sontani, Utuy Tatang. Di Bawah Langit tak Berbintang. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 2001.

Sontani, Utuy Tatang. Menuju Kamar Durhaka: Sepilihan Cerita Pendek Karya Sastrawan Eksil. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 2002.

7. The PKI’s attempt at armed struggle in 1967-68

Liem, Andre. “Perjuangan Bersenjata PKI di Blitar Selatan dan Operasi Trisula.” In John Roosa, Ayu Ratih, and Hilmar Farid, eds. Tahun yang Tak Pernah Berakhir: Memahami Pengalaman Korban 65: Esai-Esai Sejarah Lisan. Jakarta: Elsam, 2004.

McVey, Ruth. “PKI Fortunes at Low Tide.” Problems of Communism (Jan-April 1971).

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Indonesian Communism since the 1965 Coup.” Pacific Affairs 43, no. 1 (Spring 1970): 34-60.

Weatherbee, Donald. “Phoenix Supine: the Indonesian Communist Party and Armed Struggle.” in Lim Joo-Jock, ed. Armed Communist Movements in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1984.

8. Journals

Bulletin Soeara Kita. Jakarta. Published by Yayasan Penelitian Korban Pembunuhan 1965/1966. 2000-2008. Monthly, irregular.

Pakorba Bulletin. Jakarta. Published by Paguyuban Korban Orde Baru.

Ruas. Yogyakarta. Published by Syarikat.

V. The Founding of the Suharto Regime

1. Building a Military Dictatorship

Bunnell, Frederick. “Indonesia’s Quasi-Military Regime.” Current History (January 1967).

Caldwell, Malcolm, ed. Ten Years’ Military Terror in Indonesia. London: Spokesman Books, 1975.

Crouch, Harold. “Military Politics under Indonesia’s New Order.” Pacific Affairs 45, no. 2 (Summer 1972): 206-219.

Crouch, Harold. “Generals and Business in Indonesia.” Pacific Affairs 48, no. 4 (Winter 1975-76): 519-540.

Djamaluddin, Dasman. General TNI Anumaerta Basoeki Rachmat dan Supersemar. Jakarta: Grasindo, 1998.

Feith, Herbert. “Suharto’s Search for a Political Format,” Indonesia no. 6 (October 1968): 88-105.

Hindley, Donald. “Alirans and the Fall of the Old Order.” Indonesia no. 9 (April 1970): 23-66.

Jenkins, David. Suharto and his Generals: Indonesian Military Politics 1975-1983. Ithaca: Cornell University Modern Indonesia Project, 1984.

McDonald, Hamish. Suharto’s Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1981.

Pambudi, A. Supersemar Palsu: Kesaksian Tiga Jenderal. Jakarta: Media Pressindo, 2006.

Pauker, Guy. “Indonesia: The Year of Transition.” Asian Survey 7, no. 2 (February 1967): 138-150.

Pauker, Guy. “Toward a New Order in Indonesia.” Foreign Affairs 45, no. 3 (April 1967): 503-519. ]

Pohan, Y. Who Were the Real Plotters of the Coup against President Soekarno’s Government? Amsterdam: Indonesia Media Foundation, 1988.

Reeve, David. “The Corporatist State: The Case of Golkar.” In State and Civil Society in Indonesia, edited by Arief Budiman. Clayton: Monash University Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990.

Robison, Richard. “Toward a Class Analysis of the Indonesian Military Bureaucratic State.” Indonesia 25 (April 1978): 17-39.

Robison, Richard. “Culture, Politics, and Economy in the Political History of the New Order.” Indonesia no. 31 (October 1980): 1-29.

Schwarz, Adam. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin, 1994.

Siregar, M.R. Naiknya para Jenderal. Medan: Sumatera Human Rights Watch Network, 2000.

Soe Hok Gie. Catatan Seorang Demonstran. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1989.

Southwood, Julie, and Patrick Flanagan. Indonesia: Law, Propaganda and Terror. London: Zed Press, 1983.

Sutley, Stewart. “The Indonesian ‘New Order’ as New Sovereign Space: Its Creation and Narrative of Self-concealment.” Space and Polity 4, no. 2 (2000): 131-152.

Utrecht, Ernst. Indonesie’s Nieuwe Orde: Ontbinding en Neokolonisatie. Amsterdam: van Gennep, 1970.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Indonesia: The Battle of the ‘Old’ and the ‘New Order.’” Australian Outlook 21 (April 1967): 18-43.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Sukarno’s Fall.” Orbis 11 (Summer 1967): 491-531.

Van der Kroef, Justus. “Sukarno, the Ideologue.” Pacific Affairs 41, no. 2 (Summer 1968): 245-249.

Van der Kroef, Justus. Indonesia After Sukarno. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1971.

Vittachi, Tarzie. The Fall of Sukarno. New York: Praeger, 1967.

Wardaya, Baskara T. Bung Karno Menggugat! Dari Marhaen, CIA, Pembantaian Massal ’65 hingga G30S. Yogyakarta: Galangpress, 2006.

Wardaya, Baskara T. Membongkar Supersemar! Dari CIA hingga Kudeta Merangkak Melawan Bung Karno. Yogyakarta: Galangpress, 2007.

Wertheim, W.F. et al. Tien Jaar Onrecht in Indonesië: Militaire Dictatuur en Internationale Steun. Amsterdam: Van Gennep, 1976.

Wieringa, Saskia. “The Birth of the New Order State in Indonesia: Sexual Politics and Nationalism,” Journal of Women’s History 15, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 70-91.

Wikipedia Encyclopedia. “Supersemar”: This is an excellent entry, carefullly written and helpfully illustrated.

2. Civilians who helped build the Suharto dictatorship

Ahmad, Rofiqul-Umam. Rafiuddin Munis Tamar. Mohamad Zamroni: Tokoh Kunci Angkatan ’66. Jakarta: Pustaka Indonesia Satu, 2006.

Anwar, Rosihan. Peranan Intelligentsia Militer dan Pendidikan dalam Proses Modernisasi. Djakarta : Media Raya, 1966.

Anwar, Rosihan. Hubungan Sipil-Militer diberbagai Negeri. Jakarta : Study Group “Mahasiswa Tjempaka Putih,” 1967.

Batubara, Cosmos. Sebuah Otobiografi Politik. Jakarta: Kompas, 2007.

Glassburner, Bruce. “Political Economy and the Suharto Regime.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 14, no. 3 (November 1978): 24-51.

Dhakidae, Daniel. Cendekiawan dan Kekuasaan dalam Negara Orde Baru. Jakarta: Gramedia, 2003.

Deliar Noer. Mohammad Hatta: Biografi Politik. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1990: 604-650.

Mandan, Arief Mudatsir, ed. Subchan Z.E. Sang Maestro: Politisi Intelektual dari Kalangan NU Modern. Jakarta: Pustaka Indonesia Satu, 2001.

Malik, Adam. “Promise in Indonesia.” Foreign Affairs 46, no. 2 (January 1968): 292-303.

Malik, Adam. Mengabdi Republik. Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1978. English translation: In the Service of the Republic. Singapore: Gunung Agung, 1980.

Pauker, Guy. “Indonesia: The Age of Reason?” Asian Survey 16, no. 12 (December 1976): 1197-1201.

Pandoe, H. Marthias Dusky. A Nan Takana (Apa yang Teringat): Memoar Seorang Wartawan. Jakarta: Kompas, 2001. Pandoe was an anti-communist journalist who co-founded the newspaper, Aman Makmur, in Padang in 1963. He describes his collaboration with army officers in running the paper and attacking the PKI after October 1965 (pp. 133-155). He mentions attending the 10th conference of the World Anti-Communist League in Tapei in 1977 where his fellow delegate from Indonesia, Muhammad Roem, recounted the killing of “hundreds of thousands, if not millions of communists” as a matter of pride (p. 225).

Prawiro, Loka Manya. Radius Prawiro Diantara Para Tokoh. Yogyakarta: Andi, 2006.

Ransom, David. “Ford Country: Building an Elite for Indonesia.” In The Trojan Horse: A Radical Look at Foreign Aid, edited by Steve Weissman. Palo Alto: Ramparts Press, 1975.

Seda, Frans. Simfoni tanpa Henti: Ekonomi Politik Masyarakat Baru Indonesia. Jakarta: Atma Jaya and Gramedia, 1992.

Simpson, Brad. Economists with Guns. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2008.

Thee Kian Wie, ed., Recollections: The Indonesian Economy, 1950s-1990s. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003. Translated into Indonesian as: Pekaku Berkisah: Ekonomi Indonesia 1950-an sampai 1990-an. Jakarta: Kompas, 2005.

Winters, Jeffrey. Power in Motion: Capital Mobility and the Indonesian State. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.

3. Involvement of foreign governments

Bunnell, Frederick. “American ‘Low Posture’ Policy Toward Indonesia in the Months Leading up to the 1965 ‘Coup.’” Indonesia no. 50 (October 1990): 29-60.

Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-1968. Vol. 26, Indonesia, Malaysia-Singapore, Philippines. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001. Available online:

Easter, David. “‘Keep the Indonesian Pot Boiling’: Western Covert Intervention in Indonesia, October 1965—March 1966.” Cold War History 5, no. 1 (February 2005): 55-73.

Evans III, Bryan. “The Influence of the United States Army on the Development of the Indonesian Army (1954-1964).” Indonesia no. 47 (April 1989): 25-48.

Gardner, Paul. Shared Hopes, Separate Fears: Fifty Years of U.S.-Indonesian Relations. Boulder: Westview, 1997.

Hilsman, Roger. To Move a Nation: The Politics of Foreign Policy in the Administration of John F. Kennedy. New York: Delta, 1967.

Green, Marshall. Indonesia: Crisis and Transformation, 1965-67. Washington: Compass Press, 1990.

Jones, Howard. Indonesia: The Possible Dream. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971.

Kahin, George, and Audrey Kahin. Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. New York: New Press, 1995.

Maxwell, Neville. “CIA Involvement in the 1965 Military Coup.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 9, no. 2 (1979): 251-252.

Scott, Peter Dale. “Exporting Military-Economic Development: America and the Overthrow of Sukarno.” In Ten Years’ Military Terror in Indonesia, edited by Malcolm Caldwell. Nottingham: Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation for Spokesman Books, 1975.

Simpson, Brad, Economists with Guns. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2008.

Tovar, Hugh, “The Indonesian Crisis of 1965-1967: A Retrospective.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 7 (Fall 1994).

4. Anti-communist culture of the Suharto years

Aveling, Harry. “Indonesian Writers and the Left, Before 1965.” RIMA 4, nos. 1-2 (January-June 1970).

Foulcher, Keith. “The Manifesto is Not Dead”: Indonesian Literary Politics Thirty Years On. Clayton, Vic., Australia : Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1994. 22 p.

George, Ken. “Some Things That Have Happened to The Sun After September 1965: Politics and the Interpretation of an Indonesian Painting.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 39, no. 4 (1997): 599-634.

Goodfellow, Rob. “Api Dalam Sekam: The New Order and the Ideology of Anti-Communism.” Monash University, Center of Southeast Asian Studies, Working Paper 95, 1995.

Hill, David T. “The Two Leading Institutions: Taman Ismail Marzuki and Horison.” In V.M. Hooker, ed. Culture and Society in New Order Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1993: 245-262.

Jassin, H.B. Angkatan ’66: Prosa dan Puisi. 2 vols. Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1980. First published 1968.

Kayam, Umar. Seribu Kunang2 di Manhattan: Enam Tjerita Pendek. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1972.

Kayam, Umar. Sri Sumarah dan Bawuk. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1975. Translated into English by Harry Aveling: Sri Sumarah and Other Stories. Kuala Lumpur: Heinemann, 1980.

Kayam, Umar. Semangat Indonesia: Suatu Perjalanan Budaya. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1985.

Kayam, Umar. Mangan Ora Mangan Kumpul. Jakarta: Grafiti, 1991.

Kayam, Umar. Titipan Umar Kayam: Sekumpulan Kolom di Majalah Tempo. Jakarta: Tempo, 2002.

Lubis, Mochtar. We Indonesians. Trans. Florence Lamoureux. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Southeast Asian Studies, 1979.

Luthfi, Ahmad Nashih. Manusia Ulang-Alik: Biografi Umar Kayam. Jogyakarta: Eja, 2007.

Moeljanto, D.S. and Ismail, Taufiq, eds. Prahaya Budaya: Kilas-balik Ofensif Lekra/PKI. Bandung: Mizan, 1995.

Rosidi, Ajip. “Manifes Kebudayaan dan KKPI.” Horison (January 1987 and February 1987); “Masa Lalu Sebagai Sejarah” (August 1987).

Rosidi, Ajip. Hidup Tanpa Ijazah: Yang Terekam dalam Kenangan. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 2008.

Sen, Krishna. Indonesian Cinema: Framing the New Order. London: Zed Press, 1994.

Soekito, Wiratmo. “Catatan mengenai Manifes Kebudayaan.” In Kasijanto and S.D. Damono, eds., Tifa Budaya. Jakarta: Leppenas, 1981.

Soekito, Wiratmo. “Satyagraha Hoerip atau Apologi pro vita Lekra.” Horison 11 (1982): 345-349.

Soekito, Wiratmo. Kesusastraan dan Kekuasaan. Jakarta: Yayasan Arus, 1984.

VI. Social Memory

1. Fictional literature

Ajidarma, Seno Gumira. Kalatidha. Jakarta: Gramedia, 2006.

Aveling, Harry. Editor and translator. Gestapu: Indonesian Short Stories on the Abortive Communist Coup of 30th September 1965. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Southeast Asian Working Paper no. 6. 1975

Marga T. Kuraih…Namun Tak Terjangkau. Jakarta: Gramedia, 2000.

Massardi, Noorca M. September. Solo: Tiga Serangkai, 2006.

Massardi, Yudhistira ANM. Mencoba Tidak Menyerah. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Benteng Budaya, 1996; originally published: Jakarta: Gramedia, 1979.

Rosidi, Ajip. Anak Tanah Air. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1985. Republished in 2008.

Tohari, Ahmad. Kubah. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1980.

Tohari, Ahmad. Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1982. Lintang Kemukus Dini Hari. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1985. Jantera Bianglala. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1986. These three books form a trilogy about how a village in Central Java was transformed by the violence of 1965-66. All three books have been translated into English and published as a single volume: The Dancer. Trans. René Lysloff. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation, 2003. A short excerpt of this translation appears as: “The Village Dancer.” Trans. René Lysloff. Manoa 12, no. 1 (2000): 13-23.

Utami, Ayu. Larung. Jakarta: KPG, 2001.

Wieringa, Saskia. Lubang Buaya. Translated from Dutch by T. Utomo. Jakarta: Metafor, 2003.

2. Films

Lentera Merah. Film by Hanung Bramantyo. Indonesia. Released 2006. A horror film about a female student murdered in 1965 coming back as a ghost to haunt the children of her murderers.

Menyemai Terang dalam Kelam. Documentary. Directed by I.G.P. Wiranegara. Released as a DVD by Lembaga Kreatifitas Kemunusiaan, Jakarta, not dated, c. 2006.

3. Scholarly Studies

Adam, Asvi Warman. Pelurusan Sejarah Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Tride, 2004.

Anderson, Benedict R. O’G. “Bung Karno and the Fossilization of Soekarno’s Thought.” Indonesia no. 74 (October 2002): 1–20.

Budiawan. “When Memory Challenges History: Public Contestation of the Past on Post-Suharto Indonesia.” Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 28, no. 2 (2000): 35-57.

Budiawan. Mematahkan Pewarisan Ingatan: Wacana Anti-Komunis dan Politik Rekonsiliasi Pasca-Soeharto. Jakarta: Elsam, 2004. This book is the Indonesian translation of the author’s doctoral dissertation at the National University of Singapore: “Breaking the Immortalized Past: Anti-Communist Discourse and Reconciliatory Politics in Post-Soeharto Indonesia,” (2003).

Dwyer, Leslie. “The Intimacy of Terror: Gender and the Violence of 1965-66 in Bali.” Intersections, no. 10 (August 2004).

Fox, James J. “The Memories of Village Santri from Jombang in East Java” (with Pradjarto Dirjosanjoto) in R. J. May and W.J. O’Malley, eds., Observing Change in Asia: Essays in Honor of J.A.C. Mackie. Bathurst: Crawford House Press, 1989.

Hadiz, Vedi. “The Left and Indonesia’s 1960s: The Politics of Remembering and Forgetting.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 7, no. 4 (2006): 554-569.

Hadiz, Vedi R. (2000) ‘Retrieving the past for the future? Indonesia and the New Order Legacy’, Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 28, no. 2: 11–34.

Heryanto, Ariel. “Where Communism Never Dies: Violence, Trauma and Narration in the Last Cold War Capitalist Authoritarian State.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 2, no. 2 (1999): 147-177.

Kasemin, Kasiyanto. Mendamaikan Sejarah: Analisis Wacana Pencabutan TAP MPRS/XXV/1966. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2004.

Kok, Jean van de, Robert Cribb, and M. Heins. “1965 and All That: History in the Politics of the New Order.” RIMA (Summer 1991).

Kurniawati, Asti. “Gunung Kidul 1965-an: Kontestasi Penguasa Partai dan Politik Ingatan Rakyat.” In Budi Susanto, ed., Ingat(!)an: Hikmat Indonesia Masa Kini, Hikmah Masa Lalu Rakyat. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2005.

McGregor, Katharine E. “Commemoration of 1 October, ‘Hari Kesaktian Pancasila’: A Post Mortem Analysis?” Asian Studies Review 26, no. 1 (March 2002): 39-72.

McGregor, Katharine E. “Representing the Indonesian Past: The National Monument History Museum from Guided Democracy to the New Order.” Indonesia no. 75 (April 2003): 91-122.

McGregor, Katharine E. “Nugroho Notosusanto : the legacy of a historian in the service of an authoritarian regime.” Zurbachen, Mary, ed. Beginning to Remember: The Past in the Indonesian Present. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

McGregor, Katharine E. History in Uniform: Military Ideology and the Construction of Indonesia’s Past Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2007.

Santikarma, Degung. “Monument, document, and mass grave : the politics of representing violence in Bali.” In Mary Zurbachen, ed. Beginning to Remember: The Past in the Indonesian Present. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Stoler, Ann Laura. “On the Uses and Abuses of the Past in Indonesia: Beyond the Mass Killings of 1965.” Asian Survey 42, no. 4 (July-August 2002): 642-650.

Tashwirul Afkar. “Peristiwa ’65-’66: Tragedi, Memori, dan Rekonsiliasi.” No. 15 (2003). This is a NU journal that published a special issue on 1965.

van Klinken, Gerry. “The Battle for History after Suharto.” Critical Asian Studies 33, no. 3 (September 2001): 323-350. Reprinted in Mary Zurbachen, ed. Beginning to Remember: The Past in the Indonesian Present. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Wahid, Salahuddin. Negeri di Balik Kabut Sejarah: Catatan-Catatan Pendek. Jakarta: Pustaka Indonesia Satu, 2000.

Zurbuchen, Mary, ed. Beginning to Remember: The Past in the Indonesian Present. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Zurbuchen, Mary. “History, Memory, and the ‘1965 Incident’ in Indonesia.” Asian Survey 42, no. 4 (July-August 2002): 564-581.

4. Oral Histories

Abdullah, Saleh, ed. Usaha untuk Tetap Mengenang: Kisah-kisah Anak-anak Korban Peristiwa 65. Jakarta: Yappika, 2003.

Kurniawati, Asti. “Gunung Kidul 1965-an: Kontestasi Penguasa Partai dan Politik Ingatan Rakyat.” In Ingat(!)an: Hikmat Indonesia, Masa Kini, Hikmah Masa Lalu Rakyat, edited by Budi Susanto. Yogyakarta: Lembaga Studi Realino and Penerbit Kanisius, 2005, pp. 153-204.

Roosa, John. Ayu Ratih and Hilmar Farid. eds. Tahun yang Tak Pernah Berakhir: Pengalaman Korban ’65: Esai-Esai Sejarah Lisan. Jakarta: Elsam, 2004.

Sasongko, Haryo. ed. Menembus Tirai Asap: Kesaksian Tahanan Politik 1965. Jakarta: Lontar, 2003.

Sumarwan, Antonius. Menyeberangi Sungai Air Mata: Kisah Tragis Tapol ’65 dan Upaya Rekonsiliasi. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2007.

Susanti, Fransisca Ria. Kembang-Kembang Genjer. Jakarta: Lembaga Sastra Pembebasan, 2006.